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Published Papers

Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cash Transfers on Older Persons Living Alone in India: A Randomized Trial   with Abhijit Banerjee, Erin Grela, Madeline McKelway, Frank Schilbach, Miriam Sequeira, Garima Sharma,and  Girija Vaidyanathan Annals of Internal Medicine. April 2023.

Depression and Loneliness among the Elderly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries  with Abhijit Banerjee, Erin Grela, Madeline McKelway, Frank Schilbach, Garima Sharma, and Girija Vaidyanathan. Journal of Economic Perspectives.   Vol. 3, No.2, Spring 2023.

Changes in Social Network Structure in Response to Formal Credit Markets  forthcoming,  Review of Economic Studies  with Abhijit Banerjee, Emily Breza, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Matthew O. Jackson and Cynthia Kinnan

Small mobile conditional cash transfers (mCCTs) of different amounts, schedules and design to improve routine childhood immunization coverage and timeliness of children aged 0-23 months in Pakistan: An open label multi-arm randomized controlled trial eClinicalMedicine,  June 2022

End Covid in low- and middle-income countries with Mushfiq Mobarak, Edward Miguel, Jason Abaluck, A. Ahuja, Marcella Alsan, Abhijit Banerjee, Arun Chandrasekhar, Esther Duflo, J. Dzansi, D. Garrett, and others.  Science  375 (6585): 1195-1110, March 10, 2022

Development Economics, in "The Future of Human Behaviour Research" Nature Human Behaviour,  January 2022

Long-term Effects of the Targeting the Ultra Poor Program American Economic Review: Insights,  December 2021 with Abhijit Banerjee and Garima Sharma

Effects of a large-scale social media advertising campaign on holiday travel and COVID-19 infections: a cluster randomized controlled trial August 2021,  Nature Medicine with Emily Breza, Fatima Cody Stanford, Marcella Alsan, Burak Alsan, Abhijit Banerjee, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Sarah Eichmeyer, Traci Glushko, Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham, Kelly Holland, Emily Hoppe, Mohit Karnani, Sarah Liegl, Tristan Loisel, Lucy Ogbu-Nwobodo, Benjamin A. Olken, Carlos Torres, Pierre-Luc Vautrey, Erica T. Warner, and Susan Wootton 

Effect of Physician-Delivered COVID-19 Public Health Messages and Messages Acknowledging Racial Inequity on Black and White Adults’ Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices Related to COVID-19 with Carlos Torres, Lucy Ogbu-Nwobodo, Marcella Alsan, Fatima Cody Stanford, Abhijit Banerjee, Emily Breza, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Sarah Eichmeyer, Mohit Karnani, Tristan Loisel, Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham, Benjamin A. Olken, Pierre-Luc Vautrey, and Erica Warner JAMA Network Open , July 2021

Improving Police Performance in Rajasthan, India: Experimental Evidence on Incentives, Managerial Autonomy and Training American Economic Journal: Economic Policy,  February 2021 with Abhijit Banerjee, Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, Daniel Keniston, Nina Singh DATA

Comparison of Knowledge and Information-Seeking Behavior After General COVID-19 Public Health Messages and Messages Tailored for Black and Latinx Communities with Abhijit Banerjee, Marcella Alsan, Fatima Cody Stanford, Emily Breza, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Sarah Eichmeyer, Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham, Lucy Ogbu-Nwobodo, Benjamin A. Olken, Carlos Torres, Anirudh Sankar, Pierre-Luc Vautrey. Annals of Internal Medicine,  December 2020

E-Governance, Accountability, and Leakage in Public Programs: Experimental Evidence from a Financial Management Reform in India American Economic Journal: Applied Economics,  October 2020 with Abhijit Banerjee, Clement Imbert, Santhosh Mathew and Rohini Pande

Field Experiments and the Practice of Policy American Economic Review,  July 2020

On the Road: Access to transportation infrastructure and economic growth in China Journal of Development Economics , Volume 145.  June 2020 with Abhijit Banerjee and Nancy Qian

The influence of randomized controlled trials on development economics research and development policy The State of Economics, The State of the World ,  2019, edited by Kaushik Basu, David Rosenblatt and Claudia Sepulveda, MIT Press with Abhijit Banerjee and Michael Kremer

HIV Prevention Among Youth: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Voluntary Counseling and Testing for HIV and Male Condom Distribution in Rural Kenya Plos ONE,  July 2019   with Pascaline Dupas,  Thomas Ginn, Grace Makana Barasa, Moses Baraza, Victor Pouliquen and Vandana Sharma DATA

Using Gossips to Spread Information: Theory and Evidence from Two Randomized Controlled Trials The Review of Economic Studies , February 2019 with Abhijit Banerjee, Arun G. Chandrasekhar and Matthew O. Jackson

The Value of Regulatory Discretion: Estimates from Environmental Inspections in India Econometrica,  November 2018 with Michael Greenstone, Rohini Pande and Nicholas Ryan

How Much Do Existing Borrowers Value Microfinance? Evidence from an Experiment on Bundling Microcredit and Insurance Economica,  Volume 85, Issue 340, October 2018 with Abhijit Banerjee and Richard Hornbeck DATA

Can Iron Fortified Salt Control Anemia? Evidence from Two Experiments in Rural Bihar Journal of Development Economics,  Volume 133, July 2018. with Abhijit Banerjee and Sharon Barnhardt

Double/Debiased Machine Learning for Treatment and Structural Parameters The Econometrics Journal , Vol. 21, Issue 1, February 2018 with Victor Chernozhukov, Denis Chetverikov, Mert Demirer, Christian Hansen, Whitney Newey and James Robins

NAITRE study on the impact of conditional cash transfer on poor pregnancy outcomes in underprivileged women: protocol for a nationwide pragmatic cluster-randomised superiority clinical trial in France BMJ Open , 2017. with  Marc Bardou, Bruno Crépon, Anne-Claire Bertaux, Aurélie Godard-Marceaux, Astrid Eckman-Lacroix, Elise Thellier, Frédérique Falchier, Philippe Deruelle, Muriel Doret, Xavier Carcopino-Tusol, Thomas Schmitz, Thiphaine Barjat, Mathieu Morin, Franck Perrotin, Ghada Hatem, Catherine Deneux-Tharaux, Isabelle Fournel, Laurent Laforet, Nicolas Meunier-Beillard, and Isabelle Le Ray

From Proof of Concept to Scalable Policies: Challenges and Solutions, with an Application Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 31, Number 4, fall 2017  with Abhijit Banerjee, Rukmini Banerji, James Berry, Harini Kannan, Shobhini Mukherji, Marc Shotland and Michael Walton Longer version of the  paper  on Pratham

Cognitive Science in the field: A preschool intervention durably enhances intuitive but not formal mathematics Science,  July 7, 2017, Vol.357 with Moira R. Dillon, Harini Kannan, Joshua T. Dean, and Elizabeth S. Spelke Full Text E-Letter Response

Double/Debiased/Neyman Machine Learning of Treatment Effects American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings ,  107(5): 261-65 .   May 2017. with Victor Chernozhukov, Denis Chetverikov, Mert Demirer, Christian Hansen, and Whitney Newey Appendix

Richard T. Ely Lecture: The Economist as Plumber American Economic Review,  Vol. 107, No. 5, May 2017 based on the Richard T. Ely Lecture presented at the 2017 ASSA meeting

Education, HIV and Early Fertility: Experimental Evidence from Kenya American Economic Review   Vol. 105(9), pp. 2257-97,  September 2015 with Pascaline Dupas, Michael Kremer DATA

Turning a Shove into a Nudge? A "Labeled Cash Transfer" for Education AEJ: Economic Policy  7(3), pp. 86-125 , August 2015                  with Najy Benhassine, Florencia Devoto, Pascaline Dupas and Victor Pouliquen DATA

A Multi-faceted Program Causes Lasting Progress for the Very Poor: Evidence from Six Countries , May 2015.  Science , 348(6236), pp. 772, joint with Abhijit Banerjee,  Nathanael Goldberg, Dean Karlan, Robert Osei, William Parienté, Jeremy Shapiro, Bram Thuysbaert, and Christopher Udry. DATA

School Governance, Teacher Incentives, and Pupil-Teacher Ratios: Experimental Evidence from Kenyan Primary Schools Journal of Public Economics ,  Vol. 123, pp. 92-110, March 2015 with Pascaline Dupas and Michael Kremer DATA

The Miracle of Microfinance?: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation American Economic Journal: Applied Economics , Vol 7, No. 1, January 2015 with Abhijit Banerjee, Rachel Glennerster and Cynthia Kinnan DATA

Estimating the impact of microcredit on those who take it up: Evidence from a randomized experiment in Morocco American Economic Journal: Applied Economics , Vol. 7, No. 1,   January 2015 with Bruno Crepon, Florencia Devoto, William Pariente

Under the Thumb of History? Political Institutions and the Scope for Action Annual Review of Economics,  Vol. 6, August 2014 with Abhijit Banerjee

(Dis)organization and success in an economics MOOC American Economic Review , Vol 104, No.5, May 2014 with Abhijit Banerjee

Bundling Health Insurance and Microfinance in India: There Cannot be Adverse Selection if There is No Demand   American Economic Review: Papers and Proceeding 2014,  May 2014 with Abhijit Banerjee and Richard Hornbeck DATA

Do Firms Want to Borrow More:Testing Credit Constraints Using a Targeted Lending Program The   Review of Economic  Studies,  April 2014 with Abhijit Banerjee

Truth-telling by Third-party Auditors and the Response of Polluting Firms: Experimental Evidence from India Quarterly Journal of Economics , October 2013 with Michael Greenstone, Rohini Pande and Nicholas Ryan

The Diffusion of Microfinance Science Magazine ,  Vol. 341, no. 6144,  July 2013 with Abhijit Banerjee, Arun G. Chandrasekhar and Matthew O. Jackson Full Text DATA

Marry for What? Caste and Mate Selection in Modern India American Economic Journal: Microeconomics 2013 , May 2013 with Abhijit Banerjee, Maitreesh Ghatak and Jeanne Lafortune

What Does Reputation Buy? Differentiation in a Market for Third-Party Auditors American Economic Review ,  Vol.103 (3), May 2013 with Rohini Pande, Michael Greenstone and Nicholas Ryan

Do labor market policies have displacement effects? Evidence from a clustered randomized experiment The Quarterly Journal of Economics , Vol. 128 (2),  January 2013 with Bruno Crepon, Marc Gurgand, Roland Rathelot and Philippe Zamora

Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Inform Policy in Developing Countries "Education Policy in Developing Countries", editor Paul Glewwe, University of Chicago Press, 2013 with Iqbal Dhaliwal, Rachel Glennerster and Caitlin Tulloch

Women Empowerment and Economic Development Journal of Economic Literature,  Vol. 50, No. 4,  December 2012

Happiness on Tap: Piped Water Adoption in Urban Morocco American Economic Journal: Economic Policy ,  Vol.4 No. 4, November 2012 with Florencia Devoto, Pascaline Dupas, William Pariente and Vincent Pons DATA

Incentives Work: Getting Teachers to Come to School American Economic Review,  June 2012 with Rema Hanna and Stephen Ryan DATA

Human values and the design of the fight against poverty The Tanner Lectures on Human Values Harvard University, May 2012

Female Leadership Raises Aspirations and Educational Attainment for Girls: A Policy Experiment in India January 2012,  Science Magazine with Lori Beaman, Rohini Pande and Petia Topalova DATA   

Is Decentralized Iron Fortification a Feasible Option to Fight Anemia Among the Poorest? Chapter in "Explorations in the Economics of Aging", 2011, David A. Wise (ed.), University of Chicago Press with Abhijit Banerjee and Rachel Glennerster

Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya American Economic Review , 101 (6), October 2011 with Michael Kremer, Jonathan Robinson DATA

Peer Effects, Teacher Incentives, and the Impact of Tracking: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Kenya American Economic Review ,101(5), August 2011. with Pascaline Dupas and Michael Kremer Web Appendix CORRIGENDUM DATA

Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America , February 2011 with Alix Zwane, Jonathan Zinman, Eric Van Dusen, William Pariente, Clair Null, Edward Miguel, Michael Kremer, Dean Karlan, Richard Hornbeck, Xavier Giné, Florencia Devoto, Bruno Crepon and Abhijit Banerjee

Long Run Impacts of Income Shocks: Wine and Phylloxera in 19th Century France The Review of Economics and Statistics,  Vol. 92 (4), November 2010 with Abhijit Banerjee, Gilles Postel-Vinay and Tim Watts

Improving Immunization Coverage in Rural India: A Clustered Randomized Controlled Evaluation of Immunization Campaigns with and without Incentives British Medical Journal ,  May 2010 with Abhijit Banerjee, Rachel Glennerster and Dhruva Kothari DATA

Giving Credit Where it is Due Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 24(3),  Summer 2010 with Abhijit Banerjee

Pitfalls of Participatory Programs: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Education In India American Economic Journal: Economic Policy , Vol. 2 (1),  February 2010 wtih Abhijit Banerjee, Rukmini Banerji, Rachel Glennerster, Stuti Khemani DATA

Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias? Quarterly Journal of Economics,  Vol. 124(4), November 2009 with Lori Beaman, Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, Rohini Pande and Petia Topolova

The Experimental Approach to Development Economics Annual Review of Economics , Vol. 1, September 2009 with Abhijit Banerjee

Cooking Stoves, Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Rural Orissa Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLIII, No. 32, August 2009 with Michael Greenstone and Rema Hanna

What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World? Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol 22, No.2, Spring 2008 with Abhijit Banerjee

Mandated Empowerment: Handing Antipoverty Policy Back to the Poor? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , Volume 1136, Reducing the Impact of Poverty on Health and Human Development: Scientific Approaches, pages 333–341, June 2008 with Abhijit Banerjee

How High are Rates of Return to Fertilizer? Evidence from Field Experiments in Kenya American Economics Review,  Vol.   98 (2),  May 2008 with Michael Kremer and Jonathan Robinson

Use of Randomization in the Evaluation of Development Effectiveness 2008 with Michael Kremer

Indoor Air Pollution, Health and Economic Well-being Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society , Issue 1: 1-9, February 2008 with Michael Greenstone, Rema Hanna

Putting a Band Aid on a Corpse: Incentives for Nurses in the Indian Public Health Care System Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 6(2-3), pp. 487-500, 2007 with Abhijit Banerjee and Rachel Glennerster

The Economic Lives of the Poor Journal of Economic Perspectives,  21(1): 141-167, Winter 2007 with Abhijit Banerjee Updated Table (March 17, 2008) for Economic Lives of the Poor and What is Middle Class About the Middle Classes Around the World?-- in Excel

Dams Quarterly Journal of Economics , 122(2):601-646, 2007 with Rohini Pande DATA

Remedying Education: Evidence from Two Randomized Experiments in India Quarterly Journal of Economics , August 2007 with Abhijit Banerjee, Shawn Cole and Leigh Linden DATA

Saving Incentives for Low- and Middle-Income Families: Evidence from a Field Experiment with H&R Block Quarterly Journal of Economics,  November 2006 with William Gale, Jeffrey Liebman, Peter Orszag and Emmanuel Saez

Addressing Absence Journal of Economic Perspectives,  May 2005 with Abhijit Banerjee

Why Political Reservations Journal of the European Economic Association,  April-May 2005

Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India Econometrica , September 2004 with Raghabendra Chattopadhyay DATA Erratum for Proposition 1

The Medium Run Effects of Educational Expansion: Evidence from a Large School Construction Program in Indonesia Journal of Development Economics , 2004 Esther Duflo

How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates? Quarterly Journal of Economics , 2004 with Sendhil Mullainathan and Marianne Bertrand

Health Care Delivery in Rural Rajasthan Economic and Political Weekly,  2004 with Abhjit Banerjee and Angus Deaton

The Impact of Reservation in the Panchayati Raj: Evidence from a Nationwide Randomized Experiment Economic and Political Weekly , 2004 wtih Raghabendra Chattopadhyay

Wealth, health, and health services in rural Rajasthan AER Papers and Proceedings,  2004 with Abhijit Banerjee and Angus Deaton DATA

The Role of Information and Social Interactions in Retirement Plan Decisions: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment Quarterly Journal of Economics , 2003 with Emmanuel Saez

Inequality and Growth: What Can the Data Say? Journal of Economic Growth , 2003 with Abhijit Banerjee

Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old Age Pension and Intra-household Allocation in South Af rica World Bank Economic  Review , 2003

The (Mis)allocation of Capit al Journal of the European Economic Association,  2003 with Abhijit V. Banerjee and Kaivan Munshi

Participation and Investment Decisions in a Retirement Plan: The Influence of Colleagues' Choices Journal of Public Economics , 2002 with Emmanuel Saez

Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment American Economic Review,  2001

Reputation Effects and the Limits of Contracting: A Study of the Indian Software Industry Quarterly Journal of Economics , 2000 with Abhijit Banerjee DATA

Indian Software Industry Questionnaire Esther Duflo 2000

Child Health and Household Resources in South Africa: Evidence from the Old Age Pension Program American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 2000

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Development economics papers.

For further information about this series and for press inquiries please contact Lubala Chibwe, by email: [email protected].

Development Economics Paper

Just rewards local politics and public resource allocation in south india.

Timothy Besley, Rohini Pande and Vijayendra Rao

This paper uses data on elected village councils in South India to examine the political economy of public resource allocation. We find that the pattern of policy-making reflects politicians' self-interest. Elected counc... Read more...

October 2007

Keywords: decentralization ; india ; panchayat.

Making Autocracy Work

Timothy Besley and Masayuki Kudamatsu

One of the key goals of political economy is to understand how institutional arrangements shape policy outcomes. This paper studies a comparatively neglected aspect of this - the forces that shape heterogeneous performan... Read more...

Keywords: keywords: dictatorship ; democracy

Decentralization's Effects on Educational Outcomes in Bolivia and Colombia

Jean-Paul Faguet and Fabio Sanchez

The effects of decentralization on public sector outputs is much debated but little agreed upon. This paper compares the remarkable case of Bolivia with the more complex case of Colombia to explore decentralization’s eff... Read more...

Keywords: decentralization ; education ; public investment ; bolivia ; colombia ; local government

Does Envy Destroy Social Fundamentals? The Impact of Relative Income Position on Social Capital

Justina A.V. Fischer and Benno Torgler

Research evidence on the impact of relative income position on individual attitudes and behaviour is sorely lacking. Therefore, this paper assesses such positional impact on social capital by applying 14 different measur... Read more...

February 2006

Keywords: relative income position ; envy ; positional concerns ; social capital ; social norms ; happiness

The Unequal Effects of Liberalization: Evidence from Dismantling the License Raj in India

Philippe Aghion, Robin Burgess, Stephen J. Redding and Fabrizio Zilibotti

This paper investigates whether the effects, on registered manufacturing out-put, employment, entry and investment, of dismantling the ‘license raj’ - a system of central controls regulating entry and production activity... Read more...

December 2005

Political Selection and the Quality of Government: Evidence from South India

This paper uses household data from India to examine the economic and social status of village politicians, and how individual and village characteristics a®ect politician behavior while in o±ce. Education increases the ... Read more...

August 2005

Why So Much Centralization? A Model of Primitive Centripetal Accumulation

Jean-Paul Faguet

With strong conceptual arguments in its favor, decentralization is a popular and growing policy trend across the world. And yet dozens of empirical studies have failed to find convincing evidence that past reforms have w... Read more...

Keywords: centralization ; decentralization ; local public goods ; local government ; municipal government ; legislative bargaining ; capture.

Gender Discrimination and Growth: Theory and Evidence from India

Berta Esteve-Volart

Gender inequality is an acute and persistent problem, especially in developing countries. This paper argues that gender discrimination is an inefficient practice. We model gender discrimination as the complete exclusion ... Read more...

January 2004

Keywords: growth ; gender discrimination ; labor market ; allocation of talent ; india.

Government Corruption and Legislative Procedures: is One Chamber Better Than Two?

Cecilia Testa

This paper studies the impact of the competition between lobbies and voters on policy outcomes under alternative legislative procedures. Lobbies and citizens have opposing interests in a public policy and offer money and... Read more...

November 2003

Keywords: bicameralism ; corruption ; lobbying ; voting ; party polarization.

Do Rural Banks Matter? Evidence from the Indian Social Banking Experiment

Robin Burgess and Rohini Pande

Lack of access to finance is often cited as a key reason why poor people remain poor. This paper uses data on the Indian rural branch expansion program to provide empirial evidence on this issue. Between 1977 and 1990, t... Read more...

August 2003

Keywords: finance and development ; rural banking ; bank licensing ; credit constraints ; structural change ; diversification ; redistribution ; povery ; growth.

Eviction Threats and Investment Incentives

Abhijit Banerjee and Maitreesh Ghatak

We show that the effect of eviction threats on unobservable investment effort can be positive. We demonstrate this apparently counter-intuitive result in a model of tenancy where investment by a tenant in the current per... Read more...

Keywords: sharecropping tenancy ; eviction threats ; investment incentives.

Intrahousehold Efficiency and Individual Insurance in Ghana

Markus Goldstein

I test a model of Pareto efficient risk sharing within households using consumption data from Ghana. The results reject this model despite showing that individual consumption is not significantly affected by both agricul... Read more...

Democracy and Education Spending: Has Africa's Move to Multiparty Elections Made a Difference to Policy?

David Stasavage

While it is generally recognized that electoral competition can have a major influence on public spending decisions, there has been little effort to consider whether the move to multiparty elections in African countries ... Read more...

February 2003

Keywords: primary education ; political economy ; democracy ; electoral competition.

The Role of Freedom, Growth and Religion in the Taste for Revolution

Robert MacCulloch and Silvia Pezzini

A fundamental issue for economists is what determines civil conflict. One unsettled question is the relative importance of political freedoms versus economic development. This paper takes a new approach to provide an ans... Read more...

September 2002

Keywords: conflict ; freedom ; development ; growth ; religion.

Social Networks and Technology Adoption in Northern Mozambique

Oriana Bandiera and Imran Rasul

Despite their potentially strong impact on poverty, agricultural innovations are often adopted slowly. Using a unique household dataset on sunflower adoption in Mozambique, we analyse whether and how individual adoption ... Read more...

Keywords: social networks ; technology adoption ; information sharing.

Land Distribution, Incentives and the Choice of Production Techniques in Nicaragua

Oriana Bandiera

Does the distribution of land rights affect the choice of contractible techniques? I present evidence suggesting that Nicaraguan farmers are more likely to grow effort-intensive crops on owned rather than on rented plots... Read more...

Keywords: agricultural productivity ; asymmetric information ; crop choice.

Can Labour Regulation Hinder Economic Performance? Evidence from India

Timothy Besley and Robin Burgess

This paper investigates whether the industrial relations climate in Indian States has affected the pattern of manufacturing growth in the period 1958-92. We show that pro-worker amendments to the Industrial Disputes Act ... Read more...

February 2002

Keywords: indian industrial relations ; industrial disputes act ; manufacturing growth ; pro-worker regulations ; urban poverty ; capital and labour.

Is a Friend in Need a Friend Indeed? Inclusion and Exclusion in Mutual Insurance Networks in Southern Ghana

Markus Goldstein, Elisabeth Sadoulet and Alain de Janvry

Mutual insurance has been shown, theoretically and empirically, to be incomplete and limited by asymmetric information and lack of enforcement mechanisms. While some research has shown that networks based on kinship, nei... Read more...

Keywords: risk ; social setworks ; sutual insurance ; intrahousehold allocation.

Does Social Insurance Help Secure Property Rights?

Robert MacCulloch

This paper develops a simple model to show how social insurance affects the desire to revolt against property rights. It then tests for the effect of social insurance on revolt by introducing a panel data set derived fro... Read more...

September 2001

Keywords: social insrance ; property rights ; revolt.

What Makes a Revolution?

Although property rights are the cornerstone of capitalist economics, throughout history existing claims have been frequently overturned and redefined by revolution. A fundamental question for economists is what makes re... Read more...

Keywords: property rights ; revolts ; income inequality.

Modernisation and Son Preference

Robin Burgess and Juzhong Zhuang


December 2000

The Political Economy of Government Responsiveness: Theory and Evidence from India

Gaps in welfare attainment between boys and girls in China have attracted international attention. In this paper demand analysis is used to try and uncover the factors which may be driving the emergence of the gender gap... Read more...

Keywords: modernisation ; son preference ; intra-household allocation ; demand analysis ; china.

Commodity Taxation and Social Welfare: The Generalised Ramsey Rule

David Coady and Jean Drèze

Commodity taxes have three distinct roles: (1) revenue collection, (2) interpersonal redistribution, and (3) resource allocation. The paper presents an integrated treatment of these three concerns in a second-best genera... Read more...

September 2000

Keywords: commodity taxation ; efficiency ; redistribution ; shadow prices

Is Child Work Necessary?

Sonia R Bhalotra

This paper investigates why children work by studying the wage elasticity of child labour supply. Incorporating subsistence constraints in to a model of labour supply, we show that a negative wage elasticity favours the ... Read more...

August 2000

Keywords: child labour ; education ; poverty ; gender ; intertemporal labour supply.

Private Investment and Political Uncertainty

Recent theoretical and empirical work has demonstrated a clear negative link between macroeconomic and political uncertainty and levels of private investment across countries. This result raises the question what institu... Read more...

Keywords: political institutions ; private investment ; credible commitment ; quantile regression.

Child Farm Labour: Theory and Evidence

Sonia R Bhalotra and Chris Heady

This paper presents a dynamic model of child labour supply in a farming household. The model clarifies the roles of land, income and household size, allowing labour and credit market imperfections. If labour markets are ... Read more...

Keywords: child labour ; poverty ; female education ; agricultural households ; ghana ; pakistan.

The Rise of Mass Consumption Societies

Kiminori Matsuyama

This paper develops a model to understand mechanisms behind the rise of mass consumption societies. The development process depicted in the model follows the Flying Geese pattern, in which a series of industries takes of... Read more...

November 2000

Keywords: income distribution ; earning-by-doing ; endogenous technological changes ; nonhomothetic preferences ; demand complementarity ; the domino effect ; cooperative dynamical systems.

Valutation and Evaluation: Measuring the Quality of Life and Evaluating Policy

Partha Dasgupta

This paper is about measuring social well-being and evaluating policy. Part I is concerned with the links between the two, while Parts II and III, respectively, are devoted to the development of appropriate methods of me... Read more...

Keywords: externalities ; market imperfections ; growth ; multiple equilibria ; sunspot equilibrium

Financial Intermediation, Variability and the Development Process

Luis Carranza and Jose E. Galdon-Sanchez

In this paper we have built a model of financial intermediation that explains the GDP variability pattern of an economy during the development process. In our model, per capita is more volatile in the middle-income econo... Read more...

Keywords: externalities ; market imperfections ; growth ; multiple equilibria ; sunspot equilibria

Fertility, Education and Development: Further Evidence from India

Jean Drèze and Mamta Murthi

There has been a significant decline in fertility in many parts of India since the early 1980s. This paper reexamines the determinants of fertility levels and fertility decline, using panel data on Indian districts for 1... Read more...

January 2000

Keywords: fertility ; demographic transition ; female literacy ; india

On the Structure of Tenancy contracts: Theory and Evidence fron 19th Century Rural Sicily

This paper analyses the empirical determinants of contract length, a key and yet neglected dimension of contractual structure. I use data on tenancy agreements signed between 1870 and 1880 in the district of Siracusa, It... Read more...

Keywords: contract duration ; incentives ; tenancy agreements.

School Participation in Rural India.

Jean Drèze and Geeta Gandhi Kingdon

This paper presents an analysis of the determinant of school participation in rural north India, based on a recent household survey which includes detailed information on school characteristics. School participation espe... Read more...

August 1999

Keywords: education ; india ; child labour ; school quality

Public-Private Partnership for the Provision of Public Goods: Theory and an Application to NGOs

Timothy Besley and Maitreesh Ghatak

This paper analyzes the role of public and private responsibility in the provision of public goods. We emphasise that a typical public good will require many different inputs which raises the possibility of partnerships ... Read more...

Keywords: public goods ; non-governmental organizations ; incomplete contracting ; partnerships.

Minority Representation and Policy Choices: The Significance of Legislator Identity.

Rohini Pande

Disadvantaged groups tend also to constitute population minorities. One consequence of this is that the policies implemented by electorally accountable governments often fail to reflect minority interests. A policy solut... Read more...

Keywords: political economy ; minorities ; electoral law ; india ; panel data.

The Economics of Non-Governmental Organisations.

R. Hopkins and C.D. Scott

The purpose of this paper is to identify the organisational comparative advantage of NGOs, and to develop a model which explains the set of circumstances uder which they emerge and dominate other types of firms. It is ar... Read more...

Keywords: miroeconomic analyses of economic development ; formal and informal sectors ; non-governmental organisations ; institutional arrangements ; non-profit institutions ; altruism

Ethnic Diversity, Mobility and School Funding: Theory and Evidence From Kenya

Edward Miguel

This paper explores the relationship between ethnic diversity and local school funding in Kenyan primary schools. The empirical results paint a picture of pervasive local collective action problems in ethnically diverse ... Read more...

Keywords: education ; ethnicity ; kenya ; mobility ; public growth

Land Reform, Poverty Reduction and Growth: Evidence from India

In recent times there has been a renewed interest in relationships between redistribution, growth and welfare. Land reforms have been central to strategies to improve the asset base of the poor in developing countries th... Read more...

October 1998

Keywords: land reform ; political economy ; poverty ; growth ; india

Decentralization Schemes, Cost-Benefit-Analysis, and Net National Product as a Measure of Social Well-Being

Partha Dasgupta and Karl-Goran Maler

This paper is about net national product (NNP). We are concerned with what NNP means, what it should include, what it offers us and, therefore, why we may be interested in it. We show that NNP, properly defined, can be u... Read more...

Keywords: allocative efficiency ; cost benefit analysis ; capital ; investment ; project evaluation

Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Rural Pakistan: A Semi-parametric Analysis

Cliff Attfield and Sonia R Bhalotra

We estimate semiparametric Engel curves for rural Pakistan using a large household survey. This allows us to obtain consistent estimates of the effects of household size and composition on consumption patterns even when ... Read more...

February 1998

Keywords: semiparametric estimation ; intrahousehold resource allocation ; gender bias ; engel curves.

Investigating Rationality in Wage-Setting

This paper investigates the efficiency wage hypothesis and derives a tractable expression for the profit loss incurred by deviations from the efficiency wage. The extent of the wage deviation can be inferred from product... Read more...

Keywords: efficiency wage ; near-rationality ; panel data ; india.

The Economics of Poverty in Poor Countries

This article examines the links that have recently been studied between poverty, high fertility and undernourishment, on the one hand, and degradation of the local environmental-resource base and civic disconnection, on ... Read more...

January 1998

Keywords: poverty traps ; positive feed-back ; undernourishment ; property rights ; fertility ; the commons ; local democracy ; civil liberties

Hunger in the Contemporary World

Amartya Sen

Economic analysis of hunger calls for an informationally broad approach that takes adequate account of the distinct interdependences involved. This paper examines the interdependences between (1) income and food consumpt... Read more...

November 1997

Keywords: hunger ; food ; undernourishment ; entitlement ; women empowerment ; intrafamily distribution ; fertility ; political incentives ; military expenditure

Inequality, Unemployment and Contemporary Europe

Inequality of incomes can differ substantially from inequality in other 'spaces' such as well-being, freedom, health, longevity, and quality of life. Given the massive sclae of unemployment in contemporary European econo... Read more...

Keywords: unemployment ; individuality ; social exclusion ; ageging population ; self-help ; social responsibility.

Credit in Rural India: A Case Study

Jean Drèze, Peter Lanjouw and Naresh Sharma

This paper presents a case study of credit transactions in Palanpur, a north Indian village. Drawing on detailed informtion from all borrowers and lenders in the village, we examine a number of issues related to the func... Read more...

September 1997

Keywords: india ; palanpur ; rural credit markets.

Population, Consumption and Resources: Ethical Issues

This article is about the concept of optimum population and consumption. Even though it is primarily concerned with foundational issues, the various ideas that have been discussed in the literature are tested in the cont... Read more...

Keywords: potential people ; actual people ; utilitarianism ; generation-relative ethics

The Economics of Food

In this article I argue that, in contrast to what is implicitly assumed in many popular writings on food security in the future, the interface that connects the problems of population growth, poverty, environmental degra... Read more...

Keywords: food composition ; environmental resources ; photosynthesis ; future population ; undernourishment ; poverty traps ; world hunger ; property rights.

What's the Point of a Development Strategy?

Standard indicators of economic success leave out many aspects of development that are crucial to the well-being and freedom of citizens. We have to examine critically the ends as well as the means involved in developmen... Read more...

Keywords: economic development ; capabilities ; valuational weights development indicators ;

Development and Thinking at the Beginning of the 21st Century

There has been a shift, in recent years, in the understanding of the process of development. It is not a switch (as often portrayed) from a state-dependent view of development to a market-reliant view. Rather, it involve... Read more...

Keywords: economic development ; capabilities ; hard states ; political incentives ; role of public discussion ; valuational weights.

Does the Labour Market Explain Lower Female Schooling in India?

Geeta Gandhi Kingdon

Labour market discrimination against women and parental discrimination against daughters are two of the most commonly cited explanations of the gender gap in education in developing countries. This study empirically test... Read more...

January 1997

Keywords: returns to education ; gender ; labour force participation ; earnings function ; selectivity correction ; india.


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What’s the Latest Research in Development Economics? A Roundup from NEUDC 2021


research papers on development economics

Last weekend was the North East Universities Development Consortium annual conference . Researchers—mostly economists—presented nearly 200 papers on topics from agriculture to COVID to marriage to microfinance. It’s a great introduction to a wide range of current development economics research.

As a crash course for you (and for us), we’ve produced a brief takeaway from each paper. Of course, these are our takeaways, and yours may differ. If you’re interested in the topic, we encourage you to read the papers . Some of the papers present preliminary results, so you may want to take a look before—you know—redesigning your monetary policy based on our tweet-sized summary. Finally, we made a judgment call about where to place papers: for example, does a study on the impact of a health intervention on education outcomes go under health or education? So you may as well just read the whole post.

The evidence comes from all over the world, as you can see in Figure 1 below. (We’ve sorted the papers by topic below, you can also find all the papers sorted by country .) By far, the most studies come from India (35 studies!), Brazil (18), China (14), Mexico (11). Relative to the same conference last year , India holds a similar position relative to Brazil and Mexico, but China is much more represented.

In terms of research methods, the most commonly used approach was fixed effects estimation (49 studies), followed by randomized controlled trials (42), difference-in-differences (29), regression discontinuity (21), and instrumental variables (19) (Figure 2).

Figure 2. What methods do studies use?

The referenced media source is missing and needs to be re-embedded.

Source: This chart draws on a sample of 185 studies from the NEUDC 2021 conference. Some studies used more than one method.

Without further ado, here are 185 paper microsummaries! For most papers, we indicate the methodology. If you had a different takeaway from a paper, share your thoughts in the comments!

Guide to the methodological hashtags

#DID = Difference-in-differences #FE = Fixed effects #IV = Instrumental variables #LIF = Lab in the field #PSM = Propensity score matching #RCT = Randomized controlled trial #RD = Regression discontinuity

Households and human capital

Education and early childhood development.

A large-scale home visiting intervention in Bangladesh was integrated into the national nutrition program. While service providers partly substituted away from nutrition counseling and towards early childhood development counseling, both cognitive and nutritional outcomes improved. ( Bos et al. ) #FE

Scheduling the school calendar such that exams fall during harvest season inflated dropouts among rural youth by between 6.5 and 8.4 percent in Bangladesh. ( Ito and Shonchoy ) #DID

Livestock insurance for pastoral communities in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia decreased children's work and increased their schooling. ( Son ) #RCT

An after-school curriculum to strengthen teenagers' character in three countries of Central America reduced misbehavior at school. ( Dinarte, Egana-delSol, and Martinez A. ) #RCT

Poorer college applicants in China are less strategic in their college priority ranking, potentially exacerbating educational inequality. ( Wang, Wang, and Ye )

Providing students starting their senior year of high school in Argentina with information on their chances of graduating (given their current academic performance) increases timely graduation, especially for the worst performing students. ( Lopez ) #RCT

In areas of Mexico with more manufacturing jobs, conditional cash transfers had less of a positive impact on education, particularly for youth old enough to work in the factories. ( Molina and Vidiella-Martin ) #RCT

A voucher reform that increased government subsidies for disadvantaged students in Chile actually resulted in increased fees for those students at private schools. ( Cañedo-Riedel and Sánchez )

In Nepal, government expenditures on a year of primary or secondary school are roughly equal to the average increased taxes that someone with an additional year of schooling later pays (i.e., the fiscal externality). For tertiary education, the gains outweigh the costs. ( Bleakley and Gupta )

Cash grants to public school councils in rural Pakistan increased learning in both public and private schools. ( Andrabi et al. ) #RCT

Attending a high-quality public “model” school in India boosts test scores in math, science, and social science. ( Kumar ) #RD

Free after-school tutoring to primary school students in rural Bangladesh boosts test scores of their peers. Targeting tutoring to students who are more socially central leads to bigger effects. ( Islam et al.) #RCT

“Over-the-phone mentoring and homeschooling support delivered by volunteers” in Bangladesh “improved the learning outcomes of treated children by 0.75 SD and increased homeschooling involvement of treated mothers by 0.64 SD.” ( Hassan et al. ) #RCT

When men in Colombia “just miss the cutoff to enroll in their” preferred university major, they’re likely to retake the exam. Women, on the other hand, are more likely to “enroll in a less preferred major” right away. This difference can explain “about half of the gender-earnings gap among college-educated workers in Colombia.” ( Franco and Hawkins ) #RD

“An extra friend aspiring to go to college [in Brazil] increases the likelihood that the average student will also aspire to it by 11.39 percent.” ( Gagete-Miranda ) #IV

Affirmative action for undergraduate law studies in Brazil more than doubled the chance that beneficiaries went on to become certified lawyers and employed, with no apparent negative impacts on outcomes for "applicants displaced by the policy." ( Ribeiro and Estevan ) #RD

When the proportion of low-income students at a Colombian university tripled, the social networks of wealthy students changed, but only a little. ( Velasco ) #DID

State-sponsored education in 19th-century France led to most people speaking the same language, with persistent impacts on national identity and preferences for political centralization. ( Blanc and Kubo ) #RD

“Providing a free lunch to all students leads to improvements in academic achievement on average” in South Korea. ( Kim ) #DID

Automated, “interactive phone calls intended to encourage parents of first-graders in Kenya to read at home with their children” increased oral reading fluency by between 1.5-2 words per minute over 5 weeks. ( Esposito and Sautmann ) #RCT

Children in rural India attended school less when their families faced greater risk to their incomes, but the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGA) may offset those impacts. ( Foster and Gehrke ) #FE

The introduction of mobile broadband internet had no impact on children's test scores in Brazil. ( Bessone, Dahis, and Ho )

Individuals growing up in parts of the United States with more robots “are more likely to have a Bachelor’s degree and tend to major in subjects where the prevalence of routine-related occupations is lower.” ( Carrillo and Iglesias ) #DID

A one standard deviation (SD) increase in temperature during exams in Brazil decreases the average exam score by 0.036 SD. The higher the stakes, the smaller the effects because exam takers exert more effort. ( Melo and Suzuki ) #FE

Public schools in Chile appoint more effective principals after increasing competitiveness and transparency of their selection process. ( Muñoz and Prem ) #DID

A bicycle can transform a girl’s life: in Zambia, bicycle provision reduced average commuting time to school by 35 percent, late arrival by 66 percent, and decreased absenteeism by 27 percent. It also had positive effects on grade transition, math test scores, girls’ self-reported feelings of control over their lives and, “for those who received bicycles with a small cost to her family, higher levels of aspirations, self-image, and a desire to delay marriage and pregnancy.” ( Fiala et al. ) #RCT

In Somalia, female role models impact boys’ and girls’ attitudes on gender equality but not students’ aspirations to attend colleges. ( Kipchumba et al. ) #RCT

An experiment in boarding schools in Peru showed that similarity increases the likelihood of friendships and proximity fosters more diverse friendships. ( Gitmez and Zárate ) #FE

COVID-19 lockdowns in Bangladesh led to more chores for girls, and job loss among parents increased the likelihood of "marriage-related discussions" for daughters. ( Makino, Shonchoy, and Wahhaj )

The Ugandan COVID-19 "lockdown, one of Africa’s strictest, impacted female workers more severely than male workers by disproportionately reducing their employment rate, shifting them to economic sectors in which they are less productive, and widening the gender pay gap." ( Alfonsi, Namubiru, and Spaziani )

On a COVID-19 mutual aid platform in Indonesia, donors are more likely to give a donation when given a smaller choice set of potential beneficiaries, and they prefer to donate to self-reported breadwinners and females. ( Hilmy, Lim, and Riyanto ) #FE

Phone calls and SMS messages to parents, encouraging them to support their children while schools were closed for COVID, increased learning in Botswana. ( Angrist, Bergman, and Matsheng ) #RCT

“A sizeable one-time-only emergency cash transfer ($526 PPP) targeted at self-employed, sub-employed, and informal sector workers [in Mexico] during the COVID-19 pandemic” increased mental health and food security but did not increase individuals’ likelihood of staying home or otherwise supporting public health policies. ( Cañedo, Fabregas, and Gupta ) #RD

Rural pensions in China boosted child weight, "largely driven by grandfathers’ pension receipt on grandsons." ( Yang and Chen ) #FE

"Living in a household experiencing food insecurity is associated with lower levels of psychological well-being" in Lebanon. ( Alloush and Bloem ) #IV

A nutritional support program in Ethiopia boosted beneficiaries' emotional state and stability, although labor productivity remained unaffected. ( Park and Kim ) #LIF

Girls receiving the Child Support Grant in South Africa were less likely to be underweight and also less likely to be obese. ( Sen and Villa ) #RD

Inequality between households within the same community is an important driver of inequality in women and children’s nutritional status. Sanitation infrastructure and health facility quality in South Asia matter for nutritional outcomes—but wealthier women can travel to receive better care. ( Brown et al. ) #FE

Health (including mental health)

Among Rohingya refugees living in Bangladesh, providing counseling, psychological education, and play activities for children reduced depression, increased happiness, and boosted child development. ( Islam et al. ) #RCT

Exposure to arsenic-contaminated water is bad for children's health, but in India, it's especially bad for younger sisters, potentially because of pre-existing malnutrition. ( Aggarwal and Barua ) #IV

Pharmacotherapy for adults in India increases investment in their children's education. ( Angelucci and Bennett ) #RCT

Encouraging smokers in rural Bangladesh to record their tobacco expenditures led them to buy cheaper, smokeless tobacco. Showing graphic posters of the effects of tobacco reduced expenditure for more educated smokers. ( Fakir and Bharati ) #RCT

“Within a government health insurance program that entitles 46 million poor individuals to free hospital care in Rajasthan, India … females account for only 33% of hospital visits among children and 43% among the elderly…. In the presence of gender bias, increasing access to and subsidizing social services may increase levels of female utilization but fail to address gender inequalities without actions that specifically target females.” ( Dupas and Jain )

Among “maternity care workers in primary health clinics in Nigeria… both rewards and penalties increase time on task by 11 percent, overall performance by six-to-eight percent, and directly incentivized performance by twenty percent.” Performance on tasks without incentives also improved. ( Bauhoff and Kandpal ) #RCT

“The current vaccination completion rate is low in states [of India] where forced sterilization was high” in the 1970s. “Places more exposed to forced sterilization in 1976-77 have higher child mortality today.” ( Sur ) #IV

How do drug procurement processes affect price, delivery, and shipment time? Across 100+ countries, “pooling internationally is most effective for small buyers and more concentrated markets, and pooling within-country is most effective for large buyers and less concentrated markets.” ( Wang and Zahur ) #IV

Hand-hygiene ‘edutainment’ within popular dramas in Bangladesh improved handwashing and child health. ( Hussam et al. ) #RCT

Evidence from 140 countries show that “epidemic exposure in an individual’s “impressionable years” (ages 18 to 25) has a persistent negative effect on confidence in political institutions and leaders, and on the public health system.” ( Eichengreen, Saka, and Aksoy ) #FE

Fertility and family planning

Providing vouchers in rural India for women to seek subsidized family planning services, either just for themselves or for them and their friends, boosted use of modern contraceptive methods. ( Anukriti, Herrera-Almanza, and Karra ) #RCT

A comprehensive family planning package in urban Malawi ("counseling, free transport to a clinic, and financial reimbursement for family planning services" over two years) decreased stunting by about 7 percent. Cognitive development also rose. ( Maggio, Karra, and Canning ) #RCT

A family planning campaign in Burkina Faso increased contraceptive use by 5.9 percentage points and births fell by 10 percent. ( Glennerster, Murray, and Pouliquen ) #RCT

In Brazil, agricultural “technological change that eliminates female jobs also increases fertility.” ( Moorthy ) #DID

Can improved counseling increase willingness to pay for modern contraceptives? In Cameroon, discounts increased update by 50 percent while shared decision-making (i.e., better information tailored to individual needs) tripled the share of clients adopting a contraceptive at full price. ( Athey et al. ) #RCT

In Malawi, women who received targeted counseling were 15.6 percent less likely to use their stated ideal contraceptive method. With husbands present at the counselling session, women were 13.5 percent less likely to change their stated ideal method. ( Karra and Zhang ) #RCT

Households and marriage

"Participation in Oportunidades [in Mexico] increased mothers’ bargaining power by almost 24%, associated with a 20% increase in their individual welfare." ( Flores ) #DID

An increase in community violence in Mexico led to a decrease in women's decision-making power. ( Hernandez-de-Benito )

In Ethiopia, a legal reform that provides for more equal division of property between wives and husbands in the case of divorce leads to higher consumption levels, particularly where non-land assets are divided more equally than land assets. ( Kieran ) #FE

Across 28 sub-Saharan African countries over the last 30 years, "at any given time more than 10% of children ages 5-16, the majority of them girls, were living with no parent present." ( McGavock )

In India’s marriage market, women prefer men who have completed primary school, while men are not looking for highly educated women. ( Beauchamp, Calvi, and Fulford )

Mobility restrictions in colonial Mozambique led young men to marry earlier and to women of similar age. “Because smaller age disparities reduce HIV risk”, “it is nearly 50 percent lower in those regions.” ( Denton-Schneider ) #RD

In sub-Saharan Africa, the effect of droughts on child marriage is weaker where polygyny is more commonly practiced. ( Tapsoba ) #FE

In China, early marriage reduces women’s progressive gender role attitudes. ( Wu ) #IV

Does it matter whether we discover information by ourselves or hear it from our spouse? For women in India, it’s the same. Men’s beliefs respond less than half as much to information that was discovered by their wife. Husbands put less weight on their wife’s signals even when it is “perfectly shared with them.” ( Conlon et al. ) #FE

After Cambodia’s World Trade Organization (WTO) accession, men in districts facing larger tariff reductions experienced a significant decline in paid employment, whereas women increased their entry into the labor force. This increased intimate partner violence, without changes in marriage, fertility, psychological distress, or household consumption. ( Erten and Keskin ) #FE

In India, mineral deposits—when it comes with sharing of mining royalties with local groups to support investment in vulnerable populations—improve women’s outcomes: “there is reduced acceptance of physical violence and women report fewer barriers to accessing healthcare.”( Guimbeau et al. ) #IV

A female empowerment program—with psychosocial therapy and vocational skills training—in Monrovia, Liberia, reduced the share of women who experienced emotional, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence. One channel: the business training was highly effective, increasing labor supply by 37 percent. ( Sungho Park and Kumar ) #RCT

Migration and refugees

Slavery-intensive districts opposed emancipation in 19 th century Brazil. There was “more support for emancipation where immigrants provided an alternative source of labor” and “where enslaved persons could more easily escape.” ( Seyler and Silve ) #IV

A one SD decrease in soil moisture leads to a 2 percentage point drop in the probability of international migration from West Africa to Europe, equivalent to a 25 percent decrease in the number of international migrants. ( Martínez Flores, Milusheva, and Reichert ) #FE

Adolescents in the households of return migrants in Mexico have a higher probability to attend school, and a lower probability to work or to work and attend school at the same time. ( Chakraborty ) #IV

In the US, “unemployment among low-skilled natives and local welfare expenditure per capita increase in the short-run with low-skilled immigration, but those effects fade through time, while voting is shifted towards republicans in the short run, but only partially attenuate.” ( Oliveira ) #IV

Regularization of Venezuelan migrants in Colombia (with the PEP visa) led to 18 percent and 24.5 percent higher consumption and income per capita compared to other migrants. They also have access to safety nets and financial services, better labor conditions, less food insecurity and better integration in the Colombian society. ( Ibáñez et al. ) #RD

In the Tigray region of Ethiopia, interaction with a migrant significantly improves attitudes towards them. ( Bezabih et al. ) #RCT

Working and saving

Banking and credit.

"Substantial credit creation and destruction exist at all phases of the business cycle" in India. "The annual average of gross and excess credit reallocation in India is even higher than the prior work on the U.S." ( Saini )

In Brazil, privatized branches reduce their lending supply alongside branch closure that adversely impacts bank access, especially in less developed locations. ( Mariani ) #FE

Increasing access to digital loans in Nigeria improves subjective well-being but does not significantly impact other measures of welfare. ( Björkegren et al. ) #RCT

In the 2000s in India, “banks with stronger deposit franchises significantly increased exposure to sectors characterized by long-term advances and rigid rates, whereas banks with weaker franchise increased exposure to sectors with flexible interest rates. Subsequently, banks with lower sensitivity to market interest rates have higher nonperforming loans.” ( Kulkarni and Singh ) #DID

In the absence of the 1997 financial crisis, “there would have been 20 percent more [bank] branches and 9.3 percent more markets [in Thailand] with at least one branch after ten years.” Access to loans would have increased by 13.7 percentage points ( Rysman, Townsend, and Walsh ) #FE

Rural banks in Indian villages decrease informal borrowing and increase formal loans, insurance, and savings products. This reduces poverty rates and stress, and increases non-agriculture self-employment, business income, and wage income. ( Barboni, Field, and Pande )

Access to microcredit in rural China reduced informal borrowing and raised the value of autarky (i.e., economic self-reliance). “Program members relied less on informal financial networks for insuring against shocks when they anticipated having access to credit from the village banks.” ( Cai ) #RCT

Performance-contingent contracts in Kenya have positive impacts on micro-distributor profits. ( Cordaro et al. ) #RCT

After a five-hour financial literacy program in rural Uganda, small business owners were more likely to have savings in their mobile money account or formal savings, and smaller outstanding loans. ( Hamdan et al. ) #RCT

Cash transfers

Unconditional cash transfers in Indonesia led recipients to be “2 to 3 percent less likely to be employed and, among those employed, 3 to 6 percent less likely to be in formal work following receipt of the transfer.” ( Pritadrajati ) #DID

Household exposure to Uganda’s social pension program improves child nutrition and increases educational investment in kin-based societies. There is no impact on children in societies organized by social groups based on age, where intergenerational ties are weak. ( Moscona and Seck ) #DID

The New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) in rural China “reduces labor supply, and the receipt of NRPS benefits lowers labor force participation by 9 percent.” ( Nikolov and Wang ) #RD

A cash transfer program in the Philippines reduced non-partner domestic violence (e.g., husband’s relatives), with no effect on intimate partner violence or violence outside home. Suggested mediating channels include stress reduction, increase in empowerment and bargaining power, and strengthening of social networks. ( Dervisevic, Perova, and Sahay ) #RD

Firms and microenterprises

“Spanish firms have lower productivity growth…than German firms…. financial frictions account for 11% of the aggregate productivity growth difference.” ( Sui ) #IV #FE

“Aggregate reallocation is procyclical,” which is “puzzling given the documented fact that the benefits to reallocation are countercyclical.” But “this procyclicality is entirely driven by reallocation of bundled capital.” ( Yang )

Fast-food chains in the US may intentionally target areas with higher obesity rates: "every 1% increase in obesity rate results in 3.8-4.3 additional branch openings." ( Chopra ) #PSM

Using data from India’s largest job website, growing demand for machine learning skills—a proxy for the adoption of artificial intelligence—"has a direct negative impact on the total number of vacancies posted by” firms. It also reduces wages for most jobs. ( Copestake, Pople, and Stapleton ) #FE

A three-week mini-masters of business administration (MBA) program for Ugandan high school students had positive impacts on earnings and business profits 3.5 years later, regardless of whether the training focused on hard skills or soft skills. ( Chioda et al. ) #RCT

In China, “individuals with higher college entrance exam scores … are less likely to create firms; however, when they do, their firms are more successful than those of their lower-score counterparts.” ( Bai et al. ) #FE

The improvement of the quality of legal courts in India has a disproportionately large impact on investment decisions of individuals from disadvantaged castes. ( Chakraborty et al. ) #FE

The entry of chain stores (like 7-11 or Circle-K) into Mexican neighborhoods reduced the number of neighborhood shops, but mostly from fewer newer neighborhood shops opening than usual rather than a bunch going out of business. ( Talamas Marcos ) #IV

In India, managers of firms with the same group identity (family lineage, native language, place of origin, and caste) as the board earn higher compensation. ( Aswani )

Reliability matters for firm-level trading patterns. In Rwanda, ‘good firms’—exporters, multinational companies, large firms, and suppliers to exporters and other multinational companies—are considered more reliable. Reliability matters for the supply chain and supplying a multinational company increases overall seller reliability. ( Nigam and Tan ) #FE

In the Dominican Republic, 20 percent of workers who change firms move to a buyer or supplier of their original employer. Hiring firms experience strong sales and productivity growth. ( Cardoza et al. ) #FE

In China, “historical family culture, as measured by genealogy density, is positively correlated with the share of family firms in counties.” ( Xie and Yuan ) #IV

While rural communities in India can solve internal collective action problems to improve production quality, they are not free from internal market frictions. ( Rao and Shenoy ) #DID

In Mozambique, while female telephone sales representatives working with M-Pesa, a leading mobile money provider in Sub-Saharan Africa, registered fewer clients with new SIM cards, they were more likely to convert these new mobile phone clients to M-Pesa, resulting in similar overall enrollments of new M-Pesa clients. ( Karra et al. ) #RCT

Contracts between the largest oil companies and petro-rich economies with weak institutions go through more changes later in the process (i.e., are backloaded) relative to countries with strong institutions. ( Paltseva, Toews, and Troya-Martinez ) #FE

Labor (including child labor)

A six-month wage incentive for secondary school graduates in Mexico gets youth into the labor market sooner then they'd enter otherwise (without pulling them away from education). ( Abel et al. ) #RCT

A new model to simulate the “the potential impacts of automation” finds big inequality impacts: Automation “raises 2050 wages of high-skilled American workers by 28.8 percent and lowers 2050 wages of low-skilled American workers by 22.8.” ( Benzell et al. )

Do “rickshaw-pullers from Bangladesh exert more effort in their work when they have more family dependents to support?” Yes. ( Aziz )

Most firms in Ethiopia use social networks to find new employees. Subsidizing the formalization of their search (through online and physical posting of job ads) had no effect on the total vacancies that firms created, but it did lead to more “white collar, professional positions.” ( Hensel, Tekleselassie, and Witte ) #RCT

“Offering part-time employment opportunities” in Ethiopia, compared to full-time employment, “attracts less able applicants, who exhibit lower productivity as measured by data entry speed and accuracy during an internship.” ( Kim, Kim, and Zhu ) #RCT

A women’s self-help group lending program in rural Bihar, India, reduced participation in agricultural wage labor for women from disadvantaged caste groups, while those from privileged caste groups increased their participation in self-employment. ( Surendra ) #DID

Uber is used by drivers to buffer against adverse weather shocks: a one SD increase in the intensity of an agricultural shock in Uganda increases time online by 5.1 hours in the month of the adverse weather event (a 6 percent increase over average hours). ( Michuda ) #FE

In India, a mother-in-law’s death reduces her daughter-in-law’s labor force participation by 10 percent. ( Khanna and Pandey ) #FE

In India, “job ads with a high female association use words in the job text that reflect gender stereotypes in job attributes, offer lower wages, and attract a high share of female applications.” ( Chaturvedi, Mahajan, Siddique ) #FE

After a commodity price boom in Brazil, labor was reallocated away from agriculture towards the manufacturing sector in locations more exposed to the commodities boom. ( Laskievic ) #IV

Poverty Measurement

Limitations of big data: Call Detail Records in Haiti fail as an alternative basis for either targeting or evaluation. Predicted outcomes are too noisy to differentiate between targeted cash transfer beneficiaries or to detect changes in food security. ( Barriga Cabanillas et al. ) #RD

Despite large post-disaster reconstruction programs after the 2004 tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia, the economic status of those living in heavily damaged areas did not keep up. This is partly driven by much higher inflation rates in those areas. ( Lawton et al. ) #FE

In Mexico, “combining survey and sub-area level satellite data using household-level empirical best models, while not always preferable to older census-based poverty estimates, significantly improves the accuracy and precision of survey-based estimates of monetary poverty.” ( Newhouse et al. )

What information do community members have and use for social benefits targeting? In Purworejo, Central Java, community members use longer-term wealth information to predict dynamic welfare and to target social benefits. This may be useful in identifying long-term poverty but less so to identify short-term distress. ( Trachtman, Permana, and Sahadewo ) #LIF

Governments, institutions, and conflict

“A decrease by one percent of the US family planning aid induces a decrease by 0.101 percent from the other donors on average.” ( Ferrière ) #IV

Local labor unrest in China increases allocation of Chinese foreign aid projects to large state-owned firms in the area, and employment by these firms increases. Overall, Chinese aid has positive effects on GDP, capital formation, consumption, and employment in the aid receiving country. ( Mueller ) #FE

In areas with high malaria exposure, there are fewer Chinese aid projects and Chinese workers. ( Cervellati et al. ) #DID

Conflict and crime

In Brazil, “municipalities more exposed to illegal mining experienced extra 8 homicides per 100,000 people” (an increase of about 20 percent) after government capacity to monitor gold laundering was reduced. ( Pereira and Pucci ) #DID

Districts in Peru affected by the Mining Mita (a colonial labor-coercion institution) experience more social unrest and violent conflict today. ( Huaroto and Gallego ) #RD

In Africa, droughts in the territory of seasonally migrant populations that herd livestock lead to conflict in neighboring areas, especially in agricultural areas and during the wet season. “Effects are muted in the presence of irrigation aid projects, but not in the presence of other forms of foreign aid.” ( McGuirk and Nunn ) #FE

Post-war sex ratios (with fewer men) in Paraguay are “associated with higher out-of-wedlock births, more female-headed households, better female educational outcomes, higher female labor force participation, and more gender-equal gender norms.” ( Alix-Garcia et al. ) #FE

Reparations for survivors of human rights violations in Colombia improve their lives with positive gains in wage earnings, health, and consumption. Survivors also “invest in their children’s human capital, improving college attendance and test scores.” ( Guarin Galeano )

“Do agricultural producers forgo otherwise profitable investments due to civil conflict?” In Colombia, the answer is yes. Credit disbursement increases after a peace agreement due to changes in returns to investment. ( de Roux and Martínez ) #DID

A 2016 non-aggression pact between gangs in El Salvador led to a large reduction in violence, but increased extortion rates by 15 percent to 20 percent. Much of the increase was passed on to retailers and consumers with observed increases in prices for pharmaceutical drugs and hospital visits for chronic illnesses. ( Brown et al. ) #DID

Buildings constructed when the county officials had connections to their superiors at the prefecture level (in terms of having the same hometown) were 83 percent more likely to collapse during the 2008 Sichuan earthquake relative to the no-connection benchmark. ( Cao ) #DID

In Indonesia, performance appraisals of teachers reduce generosity (as proxied by willingness to make a donation to their own school) at the workplace and increase dishonest behavior, especially when appraisals are linked to financial sanctions. ( Ibanez et al. ) #FE

“Campaign contributions buy forbearance from enforcement of environmental regulations.” Deforestation in Colombia is significantly higher in municipalities that elect donor-funded as opposed to self-funded politicians. ( Harding et al. ) #RD

In Pakistan and India, public officials use personal funds to complement official funding for public services, and part of these funds come from bribes. ( Aman-Rana, Minaudier, and Sukhtankar )

In Brazil, audits increase the number of public employee hires, especially among municipalities in which audits uncovered higher corruption. Mayors hire additional employees as a form of patronage to compensate for audit-related electoral support loss. Additional hires do not positively affect public good and services provision. ( Gonzales ) #DID

In Mexico, partisan alignment between the municipal and federal government increased allocation of an infrastructure program, and increased misuse of federal funds only in municipalities receiving the program. ( Garfias, Lopez-Videla, and Sandholtz ) #RD

In West Bengal, India, “areas controlled by the state’s ruling party receive systematically higher welfare allocations, both in election and non-election years, and yield more votes for the ruling party in the next national election.” ( Shenoy and Zimmermann ) #RD

In India, “the state government channels disproportionate funds to politically-aligned jurisdictions in water-stressed areas and consequently gains votes in subsequent elections.” ( Mahadevan and Shenoy ) #RD

Joining a WhatsApp group organized by political parties in Tamil Nadu, India, increases political knowledge and affects political preferences towards the party affiliated by the WhatsApp group. Effects are stronger when horizontal communication between group members is enabled. ( Carney ) #RCT

During 2018 election in Russia, “video monitoring reduces reported voter turnout by 5.2 percent and votes for the incumbent (autocrat) by 8.3 percent, suggesting a decrease in fraud.” ( Faikina ) #RD

Candidates during 2012 and 2016 Brazilian municipal elections with an electoral advantage (i.e., frontrunners) are substantially more likely to receive a campaign attack than candidates with lower electoral ranking. ( Nakaguma and Souza ) #RD

Providing information about criminal cases and charges of legislative candidates in India increases votes for candidates with no criminal charges and reduces votes for candidates charged for crimes. ( George, Gupta, and Neggers ) #FE

In India, term-limited village presidents provide relatively fewer public goods to heavily populated streets (with many potential votes), and instead allocate more public goods to the streets of the landed elite. ( Brown, Genicot, and Kochhar ) #FE

In the DRC, high-ability tax collectors exert greater effort when matched with other high-ability collectors. Implementing the optimal assignment in terms of ability of tax collectors with (i) teams, and (ii) neighborhoods, would increase tax compliance by 37 percent relative to the status quo (random) assignment. But: governments would have to replace 62 percent of low-ability tax collectors or increase performance wages by 69 percent. ( Bergeron et al. ) #FE

After India switched from sales tax to a value-added tax, gross sales increase by 45 percent. ( Agrawal and Zimmermann ) #DID #FE

Water and sanitation

Incentives for caretakers to maintain community toilets in Indian slums led to improved quality of the facilities and more people paying the contributory fee, but also demanding even better operation and maintenance. ( Armand, Augsburg, and Bancalari ) #RCT

Building a bunch of latrines in India actually made the quality of river water worse, but only in states with less sewage treatment plant capacity. ( Motohashi ) #DID

A mixed team of Hindu and Muslim workers in India is less productive in high-dependency tasks, but this effect vanishes in four months. In low-dependency tasks, diversity does not affect productivity. Mixing improves out-group attitudes for Hindu workers in high-dependency tasks. ( Ghosh ) #FE

One SD increase in RecordTV, a church-affiliated TV channel in Brazil, signal strength leads to an increase of 0.9 percentage points in the share of Pentecostals. This religious adherence leads to higher fertility rates, lower female labor force participation, lower homicide rates, and more votes for Pentecostal candidates. ( Buccione and Mello ) #FE

A zoning reform in urban Brazil that increased the amount of construction allowed led to a 1.4 percent increase in housing stock and a reduction in housing prices. "College educated and higher income households gain the most from the reform." ( Anagol, Ferreira, and Rexer ) #RD

“Fuel standards and gasoline content regulations are widely adopted by policymakers to reduce urban pollution and emission.” Are consumers willing to pay for it? In China, consumers will pay 3.9 percent of the gas price for higher standards. Premium gas consumers will pay more. ( Wang, Zhou, and Zhang ) #DID #RD

Entry deregulations reforms in Guangdong, China, increased firm entry by 25 percent and firm exit by 8.7 percent. Productivity of post-reform entrants is higher likely due to easing of financial constraints and more intense market competition. ( Barwick et al. ) #DID

Reducing cost of formalizing a firm in Brazil increased the number of active formal firms by 60 percent and formal firm registration in eligible industries by 161 percent. Overall formality rate of micro entrepreneurs increased from 17 percent to 32 percent. ( De Farias and Rocha ) #FE

Agriculture and the environment

Agriculture and land.

Farmers in Malawi contribute more to a soil test of someone else's land if they perceive the land to be similar to their own. ( Berazneva et al. ) #RCT

Some measures of wheat quality are easily observed; others aren't. In Ethiopia, large markets only reward easily observed quality, but markets that have grain millers or farmer cooperatives on site reward hard-to-observe quality measures. ( Do Nascimento Miguel )

In Tanzania and Mozambique, drought-tolerant maize seeds combined with insurance mitigated the impact of midseason drought. Farmers learned from this experience and increased future investments. ( Boucher et al. ) #RCT

“The poorest districts in Africa are more likely to have better (not worse) soil quality and … land fertility is higher in districts with worse roads…. Transportation costs are the main drivers of poverty in Africa… Isolation might turn soil quality into a curse.” ( Wantchekon et al. ) #IV

"Increased access to irrigation" in India "significantly boosts agricultural land production." ( Boudot-Reddy and Butler ) #RD

Including women in agricultural extension training for growing rubber in Côte d'Ivoire dramatically boosted investment in new crops and made it possible to maintain previous productivity on older crops. ( Donald, Goldstein, and Rouanet ) #RCT

Fertilizer in Tanzania is rarely adulterated. An information campaign telling farmers that the fertilizer was high quality increased fertilizer use a lot. ( Michelson, Magomba, and Maertens ) #RCT

Cashew producers in Guinea Bissau who received text messages with up-to-date market news and advice earned 21 percent more than other farmers. ( Pereira et al. ) #RCT

Do cotton farmers in Pakistan “learn from cultivation experience about the pest resistance of their seeds”? Not so much. It turns out that “parsing out and processing information from cultivation experience alone” is difficult. ( Ahmad )

If you start the bidding at a higher level in auctions among "commercial agricultural producers in the US," final bids end up higher. (It's what behavioral economists call "anchoring.") ( Ferraro et al. ) #RCT

Inappropriateness of technology adapted as proxied by crop pests and pathogens mismatch reduces global agricultural productivity by 40 to 55 percent, and increases global disparities in the same by 10 to 15 percent ( Moscona and Sastry ) #FE

In US counties with historically heterogenous soil, community ties are weaker, implying that “social learning is an important determinant of social structure.” ( Raz ) #DID

In the long run, labor and capital being mobile, agricultural gains may not “generate structural change in the exact locations in which [agricultural gains] occur.” Agricultural productivity gains improve consumption and education, but there are no gains to nonfarm employment or consumption for landless households in India. ( Asher et al. ) #RD

In India: “1) rural land holding concentration is higher close to urban areas and decreases with distance from urban centers, 2) the increase in land concentration near urban areas is due to fewer medium sized farmers (i.e., more small and large farmers near urban areas), and 3) the distance to urban area-land holding concentration relationship depends positively on the size of the urban area.” ( Rao, Eberhard, and Bharadwaj ) #FE

In Ghana, increases in staple crop price variability led to forest loss because of increased cultivation of cocoa. ( Krah ) #FE

In Mexico and Indonesia, as average heat and precipitation rise, people's aversion to risk falls. But as variation in heat and precipitation rise, aversion to risk rises. (Higher risk aversion correlates with fewer risky behaviors like smoking or migrating.) ( Howden and Levin ) #FE

By 2080, “climate change is estimated to displace 12 percent” of the population of sub-Saharan Africa and “reduce real GDP by 4 percent.” ( Conte ) #FE

Projected increases in the frequency of droughts over the next 30 years in India “will induce landowning households to allocate 2 percent more labor to agriculture and induce landless households to reduce their agricultural labor. The net effect is a 1 percent to 2 percent reduction in agricultural labor.” ( Basu ) #FE

In China, appealing a firm’s violations of pollution standards through social media increased both regulatory oversight and firm compliance, which reduced subsequent violations by 40 percent and air and water pollution emissions by 13 percent and 4 percent, respectively. Appealing to the regulator through private channels only caused a marginal improvement in environmental outcomes. ( Buntaine et al. )

In Uganda, “higher ability managers do not avoid polluted areas, but better adapt to pollution by protecting their workers through both provision of equipment and flexibility in work schedules.” ( Bassi et al. ) #FE

Air pollution in Beijing reduces local traffic which in turn decreases restaurant revenue. ( Liu, Rahman, and Wang ) #IV


Growth and inequality.

In the early 2000s, basic internet availability led "to about two percentage points higher economic growth" in towns across sub-Saharan Africa. ( Goldbeck and Lindlacher ) #DID

The extinction of “megaherbivores” (i.e., really big plant-eating animals) brought on the Neolithic Revolution, when a society shifted from forging to agricultural. ( Kumagai ) #IV

“Towns that shortly after the conquest” of the former Kingdom of Granada by the Catholic monarchs “were granted to nobles are relatively poorer today.” ( Oto-Peralías ) #FE

In railroad towns in Brazil, a long historical time as a railroad endpoint predicts a large city size today. ( Barsanetti ) #FE #IV

In colonial Mexico, when the Spanish crown improved its ability to observe local economic production, the transition to direct rule increased in mining districts, leading to greater investments to improve fiscal legibility (“the ability of a central government to observe local economic conditions for the purposes of taxation, shapes political centralization”) over the long term. ( Garfias and Sellars ) #DID

Municipalities in Brazil that fail to receive the revenues they expected from a resource discovery “suffer significant declines in per capita investment and public goods spending after ten years. In contrast, municipalities where discoveries are realized enjoy significant growth in per capita revenues and spending.” ( Katovich ) #DID

Korea’s promotion of heavy and chemical industries in the 1970s led to significant growth among targeted industries/regions. However, their total factor productivity did not grow faster because of resource misallocation across plants. ( Kim, Lee, and Shin ) #DID

Differences between men and women in occupational and sectoral choices and in wages are largest in poor countries and converge over the development process. ( Chiplunkar and Kleineberg ) #FE

“The geographic prevalence of domesticable transport animals, but not of other domesticable animals, strongly predicts the emergence of early long-distance trade routes.” Much later, “at the onset of the industrial era, ethnic groups living in regions historically also home to domesticable transport animals were more involved in trade and had built more complex hierarchical structures.” ( Link ) #FE

“A 10 percent decline in inter-state border frictions in India leads to welfare gains ranging between 1 percent and 8 percent across districts.” ( Panigrahi ) #FE

Ratifying an international trademark agreement led to welfare gains in Africa (from Chinese exports). ( Kuroishi ) #DID

China’s accession to the WTO (and implementation of import tariff cuts) improved female labor market conditions relative to males. It changed assortative mating patterns, improved education, and reduced women’s number of children, especially among high-skilled women. ( Luo and Zou ) #FE

In Vietnam, “US tariff reductions led to a decrease in the likelihood of being self-employed or working in an informal business and increased employment in foreign owned firms.” ( Asghar and McCaig ) #FE

Economic sanctions in Iran led to an overall decline in manufacturing employment growth rate by 16.4 percentage points. Effects are driven by labor-intensive industries and those that depend on imported inputs. ( Moghaddasi Kelishomi and Nisticò )

Following China’s accession to the World Trade Organization, Chinese cities more exposed to trade liberalization sent more students to US universities. Educational exports dampened trends in regional inequality. “Recent trade wars could cost US universities about $1.6 bn in tuition revenue.” ( Khanna et al. ) #IV

After Brazil’s tariff reform in the 1990, “regions specialized in adult-specific industries had lower growth in schooling and higher increases in child labor, especially in paid works.” Results translated into persistent effects on human capital formation and a structural transformation in employment composition. ( Viaro and Nakaguma ) #FE

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System dynamics analysis of the coordinated development for urban agglomerations in western China

  • Published: 22 February 2024

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  • Liyuan Dong   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8555-789X 1 &
  • Juan Shang 2  

This research paper develops and validates a simulation model for the coordinated development of urban agglomerations in the western region of China using system dynamics. Our approach involves a methodical analytical process, including defining the system boundaries, establishing causal relationships, creating a system structure flow diagram, identifying system parameters, and analyzing model effectiveness. Specifically, the system's parameters can be modified using 11 moderating variables and organized in various combinations to simulate the expected outcomes of six scenarios: maintaining the status quo, promoting urbanization, fostering economic growth, enhancing social development, protecting resources and the environment, and implementing balanced development schemes. Ultimately, the simulation analysis concludes that the “balanced development scheme (2020–2026)-social construction scheme (2027–2028)-balanced development scheme (2029–2030)” is the most effective approach for achieving coordinated development in the western urban agglomeration. Based on the above studies, recommendations for promoting the coordinated development of western urban agglomerations are presented, focusing on addressing deficiencies and enhancing coordination.

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The authors acknowledge with gratitude the Social Science Foundation project of Shaanxi Province (NO. 2021D044); Shaanxi Province Philosophy and Social Science Research Special Youth Project (NO. 2024QN089).

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Dong, L., Shang, J. System dynamics analysis of the coordinated development for urban agglomerations in western China. Environ Dev Sustain (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-024-04578-6

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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-024-04578-6

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What’s the latest in development economics research a round-up of 140+ papers from neudc 2017, david evans, this page in:.

research papers on development economics

Senior Fellow, Center for Global Development

David Evans, thank you so much for putting these short summaries together of the latest research. This is fantastic!

Yes - this is really time saving. Is there a link to similar summaries from previous years ?

Thanks, Charlie! I did a similar round-up in 2015, and one for PacDev (the West coast version of NEUDC) in 2014. Earlier this year, Markus Goldstein and I posted a round-up for CSAE, the big conference on African Economic Development. 

Thank you, Dave! This is very useful :)

Very useful economic research report. There are many reputed organizations like Art of Living foundation doing noteworthy work in the field of development in rural areas. https://www.artofliving.org/in-en/rural-development

Thanks for the summaries. Great effort

Skipping the macro papers speaks volumes about the current dismal status of development economics


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