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Thesis & Dissertation Title Page | Free Templates & Examples
Published on May 19, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on July 18, 2023.
The title page (or cover page) of your thesis , dissertation , or research paper should contain all the key information about your document. It usually includes:
- Dissertation or thesis title
- The type of document (e.g., dissertation, research paper)
- The department and institution
- The degree program (e.g., Master of Arts)
- The date of submission
It sometimes also includes your dissertation topic or field of study, your student number, your supervisor’s name, and your university’s logo.
Table of contents
Title page format, title page templates, title page example, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions.
Your department will usually tell you exactly what should be included on your title page and how it should be formatted. Be sure to check whether there are specific guidelines for margins, spacing, and font size.
Title pages for APA and MLA style
The format of your title page can also depend on the citation style you’re using. There may be guidelines in regards to alignment, page numbering, and mandatory elements.
- MLA guidelines for formatting the title page
- APA guidelines for formatting the title page
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We’ve created a few templates to help you design the title page for your thesis, dissertation, or research paper. You can download them in the format of your choice by clicking on the corresponding button.
Research paper Google Doc
Dissertation Google Doc
Thesis Google Doc
A typical example of a thesis title page looks like this:
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The title page of your thesis or dissertation should include your name, department, institution, degree program, and submission date.
Usually, no title page is needed in an MLA paper . A header is generally included at the top of the first page instead. The exceptions are when:
- Your instructor requires one, or
- Your paper is a group project
In those cases, you should use a title page instead of a header, listing the same information but on a separate page.
The title page of your thesis or dissertation goes first, before all other content or lists that you may choose to include.
In most styles, the title page is used purely to provide information and doesn’t include any images. Ask your supervisor if you are allowed to include an image on the title page before doing so. If you do decide to include one, make sure to check whether you need permission from the creator of the image.
Include a note directly beneath the image acknowledging where it comes from, beginning with the word “ Note .” (italicized and followed by a period). Include a citation and copyright attribution . Don’t title, number, or label the image as a figure , since it doesn’t appear in your main text.
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Step-by-step Guide for a Title Page for a Research Paper
So you have finally done it; writing a research paper. However, just before you begin celebrating your triumph in writing a perfect research paper, the title page begs to be done before you break. Typically, the question of the research paper title comes before you even commence writing your research paper.
There are always two things about a research paper title page. One, it is the page that sets the first impression of your research paper. Thus, it can make the tutor or professor read it first or skip to the next one first. Secondly, the lack of it makes your papers look incomplete.
Any student should invest time and patience in making a presentable, standard, and professional research paper cover page. To say the least, you MUST learn how to format a title page of a research paper to grab the attention of your examiner, professor, or tutor.
Now, while making a title in APA, MLA, Harvard, or Chicago formatting might not be hard, trust us, some people find it otherwise.
In this article, our key focus is on how to make a perfect title page for research paper in MLA and APA formatting styles.
What is a Research Paper Title?
A well written and formatted research paper title page is the first page of your research paper. It bears your research paper title or topic. The title page gives a compressed overview of what to expect in the research paper.
The title page is always structured and formatted according to the citation and formatting style guidelines. For example, when writing a paper in APA, your first page- the research paper title page, must be formatted according to APA title page guidelines. The same applies to MLA, Harvard, and Chicago formats.
Your title page comprises of the running head, research paper topic, page number, student name and number, and student affiliation. During academic writing, you can structure your cover page in more than three standard styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago.
However, your research paper prompt or rubric will outline the instructions of the style to use. Research paper title pages are easy to format, structure, and edit. However, it would help if you had a guideline sometimes.
Format and Features of a Title Page
Now that we?ve defined it let us see the features and formats do we have for a title page of your research paper. If you aspire to score the highest possible grades in your research papers and improve GPA, include these into your research paper topic page:
- The research paper topic;
- Your name (the author?s name);
- Institutional Affiliation (high school, college, or university)
- Year of submission (Can be the date)
Like we highlighted before, a title page gives a sneak peek into your work. But, the adage demands that we do not judge a book by its cover. Well, is that true in the academic world? Probably to a smaller extent.
You will need to format your research paper title correctly. So, to answer the question of how to write a title page for a research paper accurately, you need a step-by-step guide.
Step-by-Step Guide on How to Develop a Research Paper Title Page
- Always write the research paper cover page first. However, take note of the respective formats.
- Your title page should be center-aligned, written third way down the document, and must have your full credentials.
- Ensure that the title is written in title case and that your official name is written.
- Add your institution's name. The name should be written in full.
- If the research paper was written by a group or co-authored, ensure that their different institutional affiliations come after the respective names of the authors/writers.
- Include the name of the course and the course code. The date can always come afterward.
So now that you know the drill on how to make a title page for a research paper, what are some of the ground rules?
Rules on making the best Research Paper Title
Regardless of the formatting style, there are specific rules that you must keep in mind. For a well-written and excellent research paper title page:
- Your title page should always be center-aligned.
- The title page must be double-spaced unless the paper you are writing is single-spaced.
- Maintain a 1-inch margin in all the sides of the paper as is the standard academic writing format.
- Preferably, use either Times New Roman, font 12 or any font as per the research paper instructions.
- Ensure your title page is correctly capitalized. When writing the names and topic, make sure you use capital letters where necessary. The conjunctions and pronouns can always take the lower case.
- As is with writing the other pages of your research paper, the title page should be well-numbered as well.
- The title of your research paper should be based on the research paper topic chosen and should be clear, catchy, and concise.
So then, let us have a look at the common examples of research paper titles.
APA Research Paper Title Page Guide
A title page for research paper APA format comprises of:
- Running head plus Topic
- The Research Paper Title
- Personal Credentials
- Page Number
An APA research paper title page has the research paper title halfway through the page. On the header, the APA title page features the Running head and the research paper topic or title. The title or topic should never be past 50 characters. It also entails the page number.
Consult with your research paper prompt on some of the details to include. Most professors or tutors will list what to add therein.
Research Paper Title Page APA Format Example
If your research paper title is about ?The Impacts of Aviation Industry on Human and Arms Trafficking,? here is what the title page for your research paper should look like.
Running head : AVIATION INDUSTRY AND HUMAN AND ARMS TRAFFICKING (plus the page number aligned to the right of the page)
Title : The Impacts of Aviation Industry on Human and Arms Trafficking
Student Name : Gavin Gray (center aligned)
Institutional Affiliation : New York University (Center-aligned)
Professor/Supervisor : Dr. Langston Wick (Center-aligned)
Research Paper Title Page MLA
This is for you if you are wondering how to make a title page in MLA research paper. Kindly note that MLA research paper title pages are rarely asked, which means you can format it like the normal essay cover page in MLA .
The Modern Language Association (MLA) mostly used in humanities and literature also has some standard requirements for a research paper title page. Here are the components:
- Research paper topic/title.
- Your name (author?s Name).
- Supervisor?s/instructor?s/Professor?s Name.
- Date of Submission.
Here is how to make a title page for a research paper, MLA formatting.
- Use standard Times New Roman font, 12pt when undertaking MLA research paper writing.
- The MLA research paper title comes a third down the page.
- Write the title in title case except for the prepositions, conjunctions, and pronouns.
- If the title of your research paper is a title or a published work, italicize
- Skip 2-3 lines after the MLA research paper title and write your name
- Again, skip 2-3 lines down and write the course/class
- Write the name of your instructor, tutor, or professor.
- Write the date of submission or the due date.
The Correct MLA Research Paper Title Page Example
If you are writing an MLA research paper on the topic: ?The Causes and Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa among Adolescents,? here is what the title page of your research paper should look like:
Title : The Causes and Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa among Adolescents
Student Name (2-3 lines down) : Gavin Gray
Course/Class Name (2-3 lines down) : Psychology 321
Instructor/Professor/Tutor : Dr. Rhodes McKenzie
You can also have a look at the ASA title page components in our previous articles. We are sure you can learn a thing or two and implement in your research paper title page.
You can use these wonderful tips as a college or university student and craft a breathtaking title page. However, if you lack the time to do your research paper, our custom writing service can help.
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Research paper format
Research paper cover page/title page.
The title page needs to include 4 items:
- The title of your paper. The title should concisely state the topic of the paper and the variables or theoretical issues that are being explored in relation to that topic. The title should be about 10-12 words long and should be centered in the middle of your page.
- The author’s name and institutional affiliation. The institutional affiliation is just the name of the place (usually a college or university) where the research was conducted. The author’s name and institutional affiliation should be centered and placed directly below the title.
- A running head. This is just an abbreviated version of your title, and should include no more than 50 characters (including spaces and punctuation). The running head is what appears at the top of each page next to the page number throughout the paper. The running head designation should be left justified and appear at the top of the page after the page number.
- A page number. Page numbers should appear on the title page in the upper right hand corner, after the running head. Pages should then be numbered consecutively in the upper right hand corner throughout the paper.
Here is a sample title page in APA format. Note how it includes the running head and page number in the upper right hand corner, defines the running head that will title all manuscript pages, and centers the title and author information in the middle of the page.
Composing A Cover Page For An MLA Research Paper
Modern Language Association style (MLA) is designated for specifying the requirements for academic writing, such as formatting and use of English. Although many research papers are created according to the MLA style, this style usually does not provide for a cover page. All the necessary information is mentioned on the first page instead. Therefore, do not compose a cover page, unless there are some special requirements.
Nevertheless, sometimes instructors may require a separate cover page, as they consider it more professional. Usually instructors specify the requirements for the title page. However, the standardized MLA Format title page includes the following information:
- University name.
- Paper title.
- Your class.
- Professor’s name.
You should format your cover page as follows:
- Write the name of your university.
- Write the title of your paper, skipping about one third of the page. Make sure, that the formatting is correct. The title should be written according to the title capitalization standards. Remember, that the first word of the title is always written in capital letters, despite the fact that it may be an article or a preposition. Keep in mind, that you should use punctuation rules as required. Do not underline, italicize your title and do not use quotation marks. However, punctuate citations as required.
- Skip a couple of lines and write your name. Remember to write both your first and last names.
- Skip another couple of lines and write your class, professor’s name, and the due date on separate lines. Make sure, that you write names accurately. When writing your professor’s title, remember to use the title as required. Write all the information about your course or class according to the instructions. According to the MLA format dates are usually written in European style. This means that you should write it in the following order: the day, the month, and the year.
- Remember to double-space the title page and center all the lines. Use the same format for each line. Do not use any special formatting, such as underlining, highlighting, or italicizing.
If your research requires a cover page, don’t forget that your first page will have special formatting. You are not supposed to mention all the information from the cover page there. However, the first page always contains the title of your work and your name. In addition, remember to write your name and page numbers on each page of the paper.
APA research paper format
Research paper template
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- Saudi J Anaesth
- v.13(Suppl 1); 2019 Apr
Writing the title and abstract for a research paper: Being concise, precise, and meticulous is the key
Milind s. tullu.
Department of Pediatrics, Seth G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
This article deals with formulating a suitable title and an appropriate abstract for an original research paper. The “title” and the “abstract” are the “initial impressions” of a research article, and hence they need to be drafted correctly, accurately, carefully, and meticulously. Often both of these are drafted after the full manuscript is ready. Most readers read only the title and the abstract of a research paper and very few will go on to read the full paper. The title and the abstract are the most important parts of a research paper and should be pleasant to read. The “title” should be descriptive, direct, accurate, appropriate, interesting, concise, precise, unique, and should not be misleading. The “abstract” needs to be simple, specific, clear, unbiased, honest, concise, precise, stand-alone, complete, scholarly, (preferably) structured, and should not be misrepresentative. The abstract should be consistent with the main text of the paper, especially after a revision is made to the paper and should include the key message prominently. It is very important to include the most important words and terms (the “keywords”) in the title and the abstract for appropriate indexing purpose and for retrieval from the search engines and scientific databases. Such keywords should be listed after the abstract. One must adhere to the instructions laid down by the target journal with regard to the style and number of words permitted for the title and the abstract.
This article deals with drafting a suitable “title” and an appropriate “abstract” for an original research paper. Because the “title” and the “abstract” are the “initial impressions” or the “face” of a research article, they need to be drafted correctly, accurately, carefully, meticulously, and consume time and energy.[ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ] Often, these are drafted after the complete manuscript draft is ready.[ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 9 , 10 , 11 ] Most readers will read only the title and the abstract of a published research paper, and very few “interested ones” (especially, if the paper is of use to them) will go on to read the full paper.[ 1 , 2 ] One must remember to adhere to the instructions laid down by the “target journal” (the journal for which the author is writing) regarding the style and number of words permitted for the title and the abstract.[ 2 , 4 , 5 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 12 ] Both the title and the abstract are the most important parts of a research paper – for editors (to decide whether to process the paper for further review), for reviewers (to get an initial impression of the paper), and for the readers (as these may be the only parts of the paper available freely and hence, read widely).[ 4 , 8 , 12 ] It may be worth for the novice author to browse through titles and abstracts of several prominent journals (and their target journal as well) to learn more about the wording and styles of the titles and abstracts, as well as the aims and scope of the particular journal.[ 5 , 7 , 9 , 13 ]
The details of the title are discussed under the subheadings of importance, types, drafting, and checklist.
Importance of the title
When a reader browses through the table of contents of a journal issue (hard copy or on website), the title is the “ first detail” or “face” of the paper that is read.[ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 13 ] Hence, it needs to be simple, direct, accurate, appropriate, specific, functional, interesting, attractive/appealing, concise/brief, precise/focused, unambiguous, memorable, captivating, informative (enough to encourage the reader to read further), unique, catchy, and it should not be misleading.[ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 12 ] It should have “just enough details” to arouse the interest and curiosity of the reader so that the reader then goes ahead with studying the abstract and then (if still interested) the full paper.[ 1 , 2 , 4 , 13 ] Journal websites, electronic databases, and search engines use the words in the title and abstract (the “keywords”) to retrieve a particular paper during a search; hence, the importance of these words in accessing the paper by the readers has been emphasized.[ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 12 , 14 ] Such important words (or keywords) should be arranged in appropriate order of importance as per the context of the paper and should be placed at the beginning of the title (rather than the later part of the title, as some search engines like Google may just display only the first six to seven words of the title).[ 3 , 5 , 12 ] Whimsical, amusing, or clever titles, though initially appealing, may be missed or misread by the busy reader and very short titles may miss the essential scientific words (the “keywords”) used by the indexing agencies to catch and categorize the paper.[ 1 , 3 , 4 , 9 ] Also, amusing or hilarious titles may be taken less seriously by the readers and may be cited less often.[ 4 , 15 ] An excessively long or complicated title may put off the readers.[ 3 , 9 ] It may be a good idea to draft the title after the main body of the text and the abstract are drafted.[ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]
Types of titles
Titles can be descriptive, declarative, or interrogative. They can also be classified as nominal, compound, or full-sentence titles.
Descriptive or neutral title
This has the essential elements of the research theme, that is, the patients/subjects, design, interventions, comparisons/control, and outcome, but does not reveal the main result or the conclusion.[ 3 , 4 , 12 , 16 ] Such a title allows the reader to interpret the findings of the research paper in an impartial manner and with an open mind.[ 3 ] These titles also give complete information about the contents of the article, have several keywords (thus increasing the visibility of the article in search engines), and have increased chances of being read and (then) being cited as well.[ 4 ] Hence, such descriptive titles giving a glimpse of the paper are generally preferred.[ 4 , 16 ]
This title states the main finding of the study in the title itself; it reduces the curiosity of the reader, may point toward a bias on the part of the author, and hence is best avoided.[ 3 , 4 , 12 , 16 ]
This is the one which has a query or the research question in the title.[ 3 , 4 , 16 ] Though a query in the title has the ability to sensationalize the topic, and has more downloads (but less citations), it can be distracting to the reader and is again best avoided for a research article (but can, at times, be used for a review article).[ 3 , 6 , 16 , 17 ]
From a sentence construct point of view, titles may be nominal (capturing only the main theme of the study), compound (with subtitles to provide additional relevant information such as context, design, location/country, temporal aspect, sample size, importance, and a provocative or a literary; for example, see the title of this review), or full-sentence titles (which are longer and indicate an added degree of certainty of the results).[ 4 , 6 , 9 , 16 ] Any of these constructs may be used depending on the type of article, the key message, and the author's preference or judgement.[ 4 ]
Drafting a suitable title
A stepwise process can be followed to draft the appropriate title. The author should describe the paper in about three sentences, avoiding the results and ensuring that these sentences contain important scientific words/keywords that describe the main contents and subject of the paper.[ 1 , 4 , 6 , 12 ] Then the author should join the sentences to form a single sentence, shorten the length (by removing redundant words or adjectives or phrases), and finally edit the title (thus drafted) to make it more accurate, concise (about 10–15 words), and precise.[ 1 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 9 ] Some journals require that the study design be included in the title, and this may be placed (using a colon) after the primary title.[ 2 , 3 , 4 , 14 ] The title should try to incorporate the Patients, Interventions, Comparisons and Outcome (PICO).[ 3 ] The place of the study may be included in the title (if absolutely necessary), that is, if the patient characteristics (such as study population, socioeconomic conditions, or cultural practices) are expected to vary as per the country (or the place of the study) and have a bearing on the possible outcomes.[ 3 , 6 ] Lengthy titles can be boring and appear unfocused, whereas very short titles may not be representative of the contents of the article; hence, optimum length is required to ensure that the title explains the main theme and content of the manuscript.[ 4 , 5 , 9 ] Abbreviations (except the standard or commonly interpreted ones such as HIV, AIDS, DNA, RNA, CDC, FDA, ECG, and EEG) or acronyms should be avoided in the title, as a reader not familiar with them may skip such an article and nonstandard abbreviations may create problems in indexing the article.[ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 12 ] Also, too much of technical jargon or chemical formulas in the title may confuse the readers and the article may be skipped by them.[ 4 , 9 ] Numerical values of various parameters (stating study period or sample size) should also be avoided in the titles (unless deemed extremely essential).[ 4 ] It may be worthwhile to take an opinion from a impartial colleague before finalizing the title.[ 4 , 5 , 6 ] Thus, multiple factors (which are, at times, a bit conflicting or contrasting) need to be considered while formulating a title, and hence this should not be done in a hurry.[ 4 , 6 ] Many journals ask the authors to draft a “short title” or “running head” or “running title” for printing in the header or footer of the printed paper.[ 3 , 12 ] This is an abridged version of the main title of up to 40–50 characters, may have standard abbreviations, and helps the reader to navigate through the paper.[ 3 , 12 , 14 ]
Checklist for a good title
Table 1 gives a checklist/useful tips for drafting a good title for a research paper.[ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 12 ] Table 2 presents some of the titles used by the author of this article in his earlier research papers, and the appropriateness of the titles has been commented upon. As an individual exercise, the reader may try to improvise upon the titles (further) after reading the corresponding abstract and full paper.
Checklist/useful tips for drafting a good title for a research paper
Some titles used by author of this article in his earlier publications and remark/comment on their appropriateness
The details of the abstract are discussed under the subheadings of importance, types, drafting, and checklist.
Importance of the abstract
The abstract is a summary or synopsis of the full research paper and also needs to have similar characteristics like the title. It needs to be simple, direct, specific, functional, clear, unbiased, honest, concise, precise, self-sufficient, complete, comprehensive, scholarly, balanced, and should not be misleading.[ 1 , 2 , 3 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 13 , 17 ] Writing an abstract is to extract and summarize (AB – absolutely, STR – straightforward, ACT – actual data presentation and interpretation).[ 17 ] The title and abstracts are the only sections of the research paper that are often freely available to the readers on the journal websites, search engines, and in many abstracting agencies/databases, whereas the full paper may attract a payment per view or a fee for downloading the pdf copy.[ 1 , 2 , 3 , 7 , 8 , 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 ] The abstract is an independent and stand-alone (that is, well understood without reading the full paper) section of the manuscript and is used by the editor to decide the fate of the article and to choose appropriate reviewers.[ 2 , 7 , 10 , 12 , 13 ] Even the reviewers are initially supplied only with the title and the abstract before they agree to review the full manuscript.[ 7 , 13 ] This is the second most commonly read part of the manuscript, and therefore it should reflect the contents of the main text of the paper accurately and thus act as a “real trailer” of the full article.[ 2 , 7 , 11 ] The readers will go through the full paper only if they find the abstract interesting and relevant to their practice; else they may skip the paper if the abstract is unimpressive.[ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 13 ] The abstract needs to highlight the selling point of the manuscript and succeed in luring the reader to read the complete paper.[ 3 , 7 ] The title and the abstract should be constructed using keywords (key terms/important words) from all the sections of the main text.[ 12 ] Abstracts are also used for submitting research papers to a conference for consideration for presentation (as oral paper or poster).[ 9 , 13 , 17 ] Grammatical and typographic errors reflect poorly on the quality of the abstract, may indicate carelessness/casual attitude on part of the author, and hence should be avoided at all times.[ 9 ]
Types of abstracts
The abstracts can be structured or unstructured. They can also be classified as descriptive or informative abstracts.
Structured and unstructured abstracts
Structured abstracts are followed by most journals, are more informative, and include specific subheadings/subsections under which the abstract needs to be composed.[ 1 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 13 , 17 , 18 ] These subheadings usually include context/background, objectives, design, setting, participants, interventions, main outcome measures, results, and conclusions.[ 1 ] Some journals stick to the standard IMRAD format for the structure of the abstracts, and the subheadings would include Introduction/Background, Methods, Results, And (instead of Discussion) the Conclusion/s.[ 1 , 2 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 17 , 18 ] Structured abstracts are more elaborate, informative, easy to read, recall, and peer-review, and hence are preferred; however, they consume more space and can have same limitations as an unstructured abstract.[ 7 , 9 , 18 ] The structured abstracts are (possibly) better understood by the reviewers and readers. Anyway, the choice of the type of the abstract and the subheadings of a structured abstract depend on the particular journal style and is not left to the author's wish.[ 7 , 10 , 12 ] Separate subheadings may be necessary for reporting meta-analysis, educational research, quality improvement work, review, or case study.[ 1 ] Clinical trial abstracts need to include the essential items mentioned in the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials) guidelines.[ 7 , 9 , 14 , 19 ] Similar guidelines exist for various other types of studies, including observational studies and for studies of diagnostic accuracy.[ 20 , 21 ] A useful resource for the above guidelines is available at www.equator-network.org (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research). Unstructured (or non-structured) abstracts are free-flowing, do not have predefined subheadings, and are commonly used for papers that (usually) do not describe original research.[ 1 , 7 , 9 , 10 ]
The four-point structured abstract: This has the following elements which need to be properly balanced with regard to the content/matter under each subheading:[ 9 ]
Background and/or Objectives: This states why the work was undertaken and is usually written in just a couple of sentences.[ 3 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 ] The hypothesis/study question and the major objectives are also stated under this subheading.[ 3 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 ]
Methods: This subsection is the longest, states what was done, and gives essential details of the study design, setting, participants, blinding, sample size, sampling method, intervention/s, duration and follow-up, research instruments, main outcome measures, parameters evaluated, and how the outcomes were assessed or analyzed.[ 3 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 17 ]
Results/Observations/Findings: This subheading states what was found, is longer, is difficult to draft, and needs to mention important details including the number of study participants, results of analysis (of primary and secondary objectives), and include actual data (numbers, mean, median, standard deviation, “P” values, 95% confidence intervals, effect sizes, relative risks, odds ratio, etc.).[ 3 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 17 ]
Conclusions: The take-home message (the “so what” of the paper) and other significant/important findings should be stated here, considering the interpretation of the research question/hypothesis and results put together (without overinterpreting the findings) and may also include the author's views on the implications of the study.[ 3 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 17 ]
The eight-point structured abstract: This has the following eight subheadings – Objectives, Study Design, Study Setting, Participants/Patients, Methods/Intervention, Outcome Measures, Results, and Conclusions.[ 3 , 9 , 18 ] The instructions to authors given by the particular journal state whether they use the four- or eight-point abstract or variants thereof.[ 3 , 14 ]
Descriptive and Informative abstracts
Descriptive abstracts are short (75–150 words), only portray what the paper contains without providing any more details; the reader has to read the full paper to know about its contents and are rarely used for original research papers.[ 7 , 10 ] These are used for case reports, reviews, opinions, and so on.[ 7 , 10 ] Informative abstracts (which may be structured or unstructured as described above) give a complete detailed summary of the article contents and truly reflect the actual research done.[ 7 , 10 ]
Drafting a suitable abstract
It is important to religiously stick to the instructions to authors (format, word limit, font size/style, and subheadings) provided by the journal for which the abstract and the paper are being written.[ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 13 ] Most journals allow 200–300 words for formulating the abstract and it is wise to restrict oneself to this word limit.[ 1 , 2 , 3 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 22 ] Though some authors prefer to draft the abstract initially, followed by the main text of the paper, it is recommended to draft the abstract in the end to maintain accuracy and conformity with the main text of the paper (thus maintaining an easy linkage/alignment with title, on one hand, and the introduction section of the main text, on the other hand).[ 2 , 7 , 9 , 10 , 11 ] The authors should check the subheadings (of the structured abstract) permitted by the target journal, use phrases rather than sentences to draft the content of the abstract, and avoid passive voice.[ 1 , 7 , 9 , 12 ] Next, the authors need to get rid of redundant words and edit the abstract (extensively) to the correct word count permitted (every word in the abstract “counts”!).[ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 13 ] It is important to ensure that the key message, focus, and novelty of the paper are not compromised; the rationale of the study and the basis of the conclusions are clear; and that the abstract is consistent with the main text of the paper.[ 1 , 2 , 3 , 7 , 9 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 17 , 22 ] This is especially important while submitting a revision of the paper (modified after addressing the reviewer's comments), as the changes made in the main (revised) text of the paper need to be reflected in the (revised) abstract as well.[ 2 , 10 , 12 , 14 , 22 ] Abbreviations should be avoided in an abstract, unless they are conventionally accepted or standard; references, tables, or figures should not be cited in the abstract.[ 7 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 13 ] It may be worthwhile not to rush with the abstract and to get an opinion by an impartial colleague on the content of the abstract; and if possible, the full paper (an “informal” peer-review).[ 1 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 11 , 17 ] Appropriate “Keywords” (three to ten words or phrases) should follow the abstract and should be preferably chosen from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ( https://meshb.nlm.nih.gov/search ) and are used for indexing purposes.[ 2 , 3 , 11 , 12 ] These keywords need to be different from the words in the main title (the title words are automatically used for indexing the article) and can be variants of the terms/phrases used in the title, or words from the abstract and the main text.[ 3 , 12 ] The ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors; http://www.icmje.org/ ) also recommends publishing the clinical trial registration number at the end of the abstract.[ 7 , 14 ]
Checklist for a good abstract
Table 3 gives a checklist/useful tips for formulating a good abstract for a research paper.[ 1 , 2 , 3 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 17 , 22 ]
Checklist/useful tips for formulating a good abstract for a research paper
This review article has given a detailed account of the importance and types of titles and abstracts. It has also attempted to give useful hints for drafting an appropriate title and a complete abstract for a research paper. It is hoped that this review will help the authors in their career in medical writing.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest.
There are no conflicts of interest.
The author thanks Dr. Hemant Deshmukh - Dean, Seth G.S. Medical College & KEM Hospital, for granting permission to publish this manuscript.
How to Create a Title Page in APA Format, With Examples
An APA format title page is the first page of a paper that gives the title, author’s name, author’s affiliations (school or institution), and other information helpful for organizing and introducing the paper. When you’re writing papers in the APA format, a title page is required.
The APA format places particular emphasis on the title page and even includes different rules for students and professionals. In this guide, we explain how to write an APA format title page and what to include in it. We’ll also share an APA format title page example for both student and professional papers.
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What is an APA format title page?
An APA format title page is the first page of a paper that includes essential information like the title, name(s) of the paper’s author(s), and the affiliation of each author—typically their school or institution. The title page acts as an introduction to the paper and presents all the essential information in an easy-to-find location, making it easier for someone (like your professor) to organize multiple papers at once.
Papers written in the APA format require a title page, although what you need to include is different depending on whether you are a student or professional.
What are the 7 required items for an APA title page?
For students writing in the APA format, the title page needs to include seven parts, each in their required location:
1 Page number
The page number goes in the upper-right corner of the title page, as part of the running head. This should be flush right with the page margin (1 inch). Because the title page comes first, this page number is always 1 .
The first line of text on the title page is, appropriately, the title. It follows these formatting guidelines:
- The text is bold.
- The title is centered.
- The title follows standard rules for capitalization in titles .
- It’s written three or four lines down from the top-page margin.
There’s no need to change the font or even the text size for the title; you can use whatever size and font you use in the rest of your paper.
Next comes the author’s name, or byline. If there is more than one author, the formatting rules change slightly, so pay extra attention to these guidelines:
- Add one empty, double-spaced line between the title and the byline.
- Names are written in standard font (no bold or italics).
- Names are centered.
- If there are two authors, separate their names with the word and.
- If there are three or more authors, separate their names with commas and the word and before the final name.
- For multiple authors, organize their names by their contribution to the paper, not alphabetically.
- For names with suffixes, include a space before the suffix but not a comma (e.g., Robert Downey Jr. ).
- Place all names on the same line if possible.
4 Affiliation (school or institution)
After the byline comes the affiliation. This usually refers to the school the author attends, but it can also refer to a nonacademic institution like a hospital or an independent laboratory. If the author has no affiliation, write their location, including a city and country.
For one author, the affiliation goes on the line directly below their name. If the author has more than one affiliation, place the second affiliation on the line below the first.
For two or more authors with the same affiliation, simply place the affiliation on the line below the byline. You need to mention it only once.
For multiple authors with different affiliations, include superscript numbers (like you do with footnotes ) after each name. On the lines below the byline, place one affiliation per line, starting with the corresponding superscript number (again, just like footnotes).
Affiliations also include the name of any department or division, if applicable . Write the department or division first, followed by a comma, and then write the school or institution name. If multiple authors are affiliated with the same school but are associated with different departments, you still need to write different affiliation lines, one for each department.
5 Course name
The course name is placed on the line below the affiliation. Include the course code if available.
On the line below the course name, write the name of the course instructor. Use their complete name, including honorific titles like “Dr.”
Last, the due date of the assignment goes on the line below the instructor. It’s best if the date is written out in full. For example, spell out the month’s name instead of using abbreviations or numbers (it’s OK to use numbers for the days though).
Student vs. professional APA format title page
The seven parts of a title page above apply to student papers, but what about professional papers?
The formatting for professional title pages is largely the same: The paper title, author name(s), and affiliations are all written following the rules above. However, there are some major differences:
- Professional papers do not require the course name, instructor, or due date on the title page.
- Professional papers use an advanced running head that includes a shortened form or summary of the title. This shortened title is written in all caps and oriented flush left at the margin (the page number is still flush right).
- The title page of professional papers includes an author note, which provides additional commentary about the authors that is relevant to the paper. Author notes typically entail an ORCID iD, disclosures, or acknowledgments, as well as a note mentioning any change in affiliation after the paper was written.
APA format title page examples
Student apa format title page example.
Milgrim Experiments Revisited: Authority’s Influence in Modern Times
Stanley Milgrim Jr. and Thomas Blass Jr.
Department of Psychology, Yale University
PSYC 140: Social Science Core
Dr. Steve Chang
May 10, 2023
Professional APA format title page example
SOCIAL MEDIA AND SOCIAL ANXIETY 1
Antisocial Media: Social Media’s Link to Social Anxiety
Mike Kluckenberg 1 , Erin Mosk 2 , and Zhang Ming 3, 4
1 Department of Psychology, University of Silicon Valley
2 Department of Psychology, Texas Tech University
3 Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan
4 Department of Psychology, Yale University
Mike Kluckenberg: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5689-3874
Erin Mosk is now at the Busines, Computing and Social Sciences Division, University of San Francisco.
We have no known conflict of interest to disclose.
Title page vs. cover page: What’s the difference?
The terms title page and cover page have different meanings in print media and the publishing industry. However, in the APA format, they mean the same thing: A cover page is just an alternative name for the title page.
APA format title page FAQs
What is a title page.
A title page is the first page of a paper that displays basic information like the author’s names, paper title, and the school or institution the authors are affiliated with.
For student papers written in APA format, the title page needs to include (1) the page number in the upper-right corner, as part of the running head, (2) the paper’s title, (3) the author’s name, (4) the author’s affiliation (school or institution), (5) the course name, (6) the course instructor, (7) the due date.
What is the difference between a title page and a cover page?
Title pages and cover pages have different meanings in print media and the publishing industry. However, when it comes to writing a paper in APA format, the title page and cover page are the same thing.
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- Academic essay overview
- The writing process
- Structuring academic essays
- Types of academic essays
- Academic writing overview
- Sentence structure
- Academic writing process
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- Titles and headings
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- Citation & referencing
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- APA examples overview
- Commonly used citations
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- British English vs. American English
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- Methodology overview
- Analyzing data
- Inductive vs. Deductive
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- Types of validity
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Title Page – Definition, Formats & Examples
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- 1 Definition: Title Page
- 3 Formats & Examples
- 4 Tips for a Good Title Page
- 5 In a Nutshell
Definition: Title Page
In its simplest form, a title page is something that gets put at the very start of an academic essay or paper. It is designed to be an indicator of the basic points of your project. The main components of any title page include your own name, the title of your essay and the name of the school, college or university in which you have written and are submitting the paper.
In the world of advanced academia, there are plenty of assignment requirements that a student needs to adhere to in order to get the best marks possible. It might not seem like it, but one of the most important of these smaller requirements is mastering the art of the title page.
What is a Title Page?
Put simply, a title page is placed at the very front of an academic dissertation or thesis. Generally, a title page will contain all of the important information about your writing including the name of the project, the name of the author and the name of the institution that you are writing the paper with. There are different ways of formatting the title page depending on the institution.
Do you need a Title Page?
In many cases at college and university level, you are going to be required to use a title page for all your extensive academic writing assignments. Tutors, professors and other staff members that evaluate your projects usually like to see a clear indication of the purpose and topic at the very beginning of your paper. It’s important that the thesis title displayed on the title page, represents your thesis statement and the contents of your paper.
What is the difference between a Title Page and a Cover Page?
A title page is the page that comes right at the very beginning of your paper, a page that only has the bare essentials like title, author’s name and institution name on it. A cover page , however, is something that often comes after the title page. It is an opportunity for the essay writer to pen a brief description of what the project is actually about and what it intends to explore.
Which page comes first?
A title page should always come before a cover page . This can easily be remembered with the solid rule that a title page should be the very first thing that is seen when you put together your essay pages. Be sure to check with your institution which formatting you’re required to use, as this will determine the margins and text size.
Is it easy to create a Title Page?
As long as you follow the guidelines that are attached to the style of essay or thesis format that your school or institution dictates, you shouldn’t have any trouble. Once you know the rules, creating a title page is the simplest part of your entire paper writing process.
Formats & Examples
Something to keep in mind when getting started on a title page is that there is more than one kind. There are three main formats in circulation when it comes to title pages, and the one that you are required to use is dictated by the specific essay writing format that your chosen institution prefers. Here is some information about title page requirements of the three main writing formats in modern academia.
APA Title Page
An APA Title Page should include:
– A running head.
– The first page number.
– The title of the paper, which should not exceed more than twelve words in length or contain any abbreviations.
– Your name as the author.
– The name of your academic institution.
MLA Title Page
A MLA Title Page should include:
– The title of your paper.
– Your name.
– Name of the class or course that the paper is for.
– Name of your professor.
– Date of your paper submission.
Latex Title Page
A Latex format title page should include:
– Any subtitle that you might also use.
– A line to explain which thesis or doctorate this paper is being submitted for.
– The graphic logo of your academic institution.
– Followed by department name, university name, country and date.
Tips for a Good Title Page
A few extra tips for creating the best title page possible include:
- Don’t be too wordy on your title page. Keep your front page information to a bare minimum with only the essentials being listed.
- Make sure to double check with your professors and with the guidelines of your specific format that you are abiding by the line spacing rules. Some formats like double spaced, some formats like 1.5 spaced. It is important to make sure that you get all of these small details correct along with the appropriate wording.
- Don’t be tempted to capitalise words that don’t need to be capitalised. There is a tendency to put a capital letter in all words of a title page, but this isn’t necessary and is seen as bad grammar by the marker.
- Don’t treat the title page as simply an afterthought. Make the effort to print it on the same kind of paper, use the same font as the rest of your essay and use the same sized lettering as you have used in throughout your project.
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In a Nutshell
Ultimately, you will be able to produce a perfect title page if you just follow these simple, nutshell instructions:
- Pay close attention to which of the three main formats your university is using and make the effort to abide by those rules specifically.
- Take the time to make sure that every single word on the title page is spelt correctly and placed correctly according to the structure and template.
- Pay close attention to the order in which you are required to place your lines on the page. It can vary from format to format and whilst it might not seem like a vital component compared to the content of your essay, it can lose your marks in the final grading.
As long as you stick to the strict guidelines and treat your title page in the same meticulous way that you would treat a bibliography or contents page, you should have no trouble at all with meeting the standard.
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