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APA Citation Style 7th Edition

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What goes into an Appendix?

Where is an appendix placed, labeling the appendix, formatting the appendix.

  • Evaluating Sources This link opens in a new window
  • Understanding Plagiarism
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"Material that supplements the content of the paper, but would be distracting or inappropriate to include in the body of the paper is to be placed in an appendix." This includes "materials that are relatively brief and that are easily presented in print format" ( Publication Manual of the APA: 6th edition , section 2.13; Publication Manual of the APA: 7th edition , section 2.14). Examples include "mathematical proofs, lists of words, a questionnaire used in the research, a detailed description of an apparatus used in the research, etc" ( Purdue OWL .)

An appendix (or appendices) follow the reference list. Use the following order for your paper:

  • Abstract ( if required, start on a new page, numbered page 2)
  • Text (start on a new page, numbered 3)
  • References (start on a new page)
  • Tables (start each on a new page)
  • Figures (start each on a new page; include caption on page with figure)
  • Appendices (start each on a new page)
  • If only one appendix, label it Appendix
  • If more than one appendix: label each one with a capital letter (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) in the order in which it is mentioned in the text
  • Each appendix must have a title
  • In the text, refer to appendices by their labels:

"produced the same results for both studies (see Appendices A and B for complete proofs)."

  • Begin each appendix on a separate page
  • At the top of the page, center the word Appendix and the identifying capital letters (A, B, etc.) in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.
  • Center the title of the appendix using uppercase and lowercase letter on the next line
  • Begin the text of the appendix flush left, followed by indented paragraphs.

A sample appendix is below:

sample apa research paper with appendix

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APA 7th edition - Paper Format: Appendices

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How to Format An Appendix - Tutorial

  • APA Appendices - JIBC Tip Sheet All you need to know about appendices in APA Style.

Information in this section is as outlined in the APA Publication Manual (2020), sections 2.14, 2.17, 2.24, and 7.6.

Appendices are used to include information that supplement the paper’s content but are considered distracting or inappropriate for the overall topic. It is recommended to only include an appendix if it helps the reader comprehend the study or theoretical argument being made. It is best if the material included is brief and easily presented. The material can be text, tables, figures, or a combination of these three.

Placement :

Appendices should be placed on a separate page at the end of your paper after the references, footnotes, tables, and figure. The label and title should be centre aligned. The contents of the appendix and the note should be left-aligned.

  • If you are choosing to include tables and figures in your appendix, then you can list each one on a separate page or you may include multiple tables/figures in one appendix, if there is no text and each table and/or figure has its own clear number and title within the appendix.
  • Tables and figures in an appendix receive a number preceded by the letter of the appendix in which it appears, e.g. Table A1 is the first table in Appendix A or of a sole appendix that is not labeled with a letter.

The follow elements are required for appendices in APA Style:

Appendix Labels:

Each appendix that you place in your paper is labelled “Appendix.” If a paper has more than one appendix, then label each with a capital letter in the order the appendices are referred to in your paper (“Appendix A” is referred to first, “Appendix B” is referred to second, etc).

  • The label of the appendix should be in bold font, centre-aligned, follow Title Casing, and is located at the top of the page.
  • If your appendix only contains one table or figure (and no text), then the appendix label takes the place of the table/figure number, e.g. the table may be referred to as “Appendix B” rather than “Table B1.”

Appendix Titles:

Each appendix should have a title, that describes its contents. Titles should be brief, clear, and explanatory.

  • The title of the appendix should be in bold font, centre-aligned, follow Title Casing, and is one double-spaced line down from the appendix label.
  • If your appendix only contains one table or figure (and no text), then the appendix title takes the place of the table/figure title. 

Appendix Contents:

  • Left aligned and indented; written the same as paragraphs within the body of the paper
  • Double-spaced and with the same font as the rest of the paper
  • If the appendix contains a table and/or figure, then the table/figure number must contain a letter to correlate the table and/or figure to the appendix and not the body of the paper, e.g. “Table A1” rather than “Table 1” to clarify that the table appears in the appendix and not in the body of the paper.
  • All tables and figures in an appendix must be mentioned in the appendix and numbered in order of mention. 
  • All tables and figures must be aligned to the left margin, (not center aligned), and positioned after a paragraph break, preferably the paragraph in which they are referred to, with a double-spaced blank line between the table and the text. 
  • Each table and figure should include a note afterwards to further explain the supplement or clarify information in the table or figure to your paper/appendix and can be general, specific, and probability. See “Table Notes” in the section “Table and Figures” above for more details.

Referring to Appendices in the Text:

In your paper, refer to every appendix that you have inserted. Do not include an appendix in your work that you do not clearly explain in relation to the ideas in your paper.

  • In general, only refer to the appendix by the label (“Appendix” or “Appendix A” etc.) and not the appendix title.

Reprinting or Adapting:

If you did not create the content in the appendix yourself, for instance if you found a figure on the internet, you must include a copyright attribution in a note below the figure. 

  • A copyright attribution is used instead of an in-text citation. 
  • Each work should also be listed in the reference list. 

Please see pages 390-391 in the Manual for example copyright attributions.

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How to Write an APA Appendix

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

sample apa research paper with appendix

Amanda Tust is a fact-checker, researcher, and writer with a Master of Science in Journalism from Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism.

sample apa research paper with appendix

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  • When to Use an Appendix
  • What to Include
  • Basic Rules

If you are writing a psychology paper for a class or for publication, you may be required to include an appendix in APA format. An APA appendix is found at the end of a paper and contains information that supplements the text but that is too unwieldy or distracting to include in the main body of the paper. 

APA format is the official writing style used by the American Psychological Association . This format dictates how academic and professional papers should be structured and formatted. 

Does Your Paper Need an APA Appendix?

Some questions to ask about whether you should put information in the body of the paper or in an appendix:

  • Is the material necessary for the reader to understand the research? If the answer is yes, it should be in your paper and not in an appendix.
  • Would including the information interrupt the flow of the paper? If the answer is yes, then it should likely appear in the appendix.
  • Would the information supplement what already appears in your paper? If yes, then it is a good candidate for including in an appendix.

Your appendix is not meant to become an information dump. While the information in your appendices is supplementary to your paper and research, it should still be useful and relevant. Only include what will help readers gain insight and understanding, not clutter or unnecessary confusion.

What to Include in an APA Appendix

The APA official stylebook suggests that the appendix should include information that would be distracting or inappropriate in the text of the paper.

Some examples of information you might include in an appendix include:

  • Correspondence (if it pertains directly to your research)
  • Demographic details about participants or groups
  • Examples of participant responses
  • Extended or detailed descriptions
  • Lists that are too lengthy to include in the main text
  • Large amounts of raw data
  • Lists of supporting research and articles that are not directly referenced in-text
  • Materials and instruments (if your research relied on special materials or instruments, you might want to include images and further information about how these items work or were used)
  • Questionnaires that were used as part of your research
  • Raw data (presented in an organized, readable format)
  • Research surveys

While the content found in the appendix is too cumbersome to include in the main text of your paper, it should still be easily presented in print format.

The appendices should always act as a supplement to your paper. The body of your paper should be able to stand alone and fully describe your research or your arguments.

The body of your paper should not be dependent upon what is in the appendices. Instead, each appendix should act to supplement what is in the primary text, adding additional (but not essential) information that provides extra insight or information for the reader. 

Basic Rules for an APA Appendix

Here are some basic APA appendix rules to keep in mind when working on your paper:

  • Your paper may have more than one appendix.
  • Each item usually gets its own appendix section.
  • Begin each appendix on a separate page.
  • Each appendix must have a title.
  • Use title case for your title and labels (the first letter of each word should be capitalized, while remaining letters should be lowercase).
  • If your paper only has one appendix, simply title it Appendix. 
  • If you have more than one appendix, each one should be labeled Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, and so on.
  • Put the appendix label centered at the top of the page.
  • On the next line under the appendix label, place the centered title of the appendix. 
  • If you refer to a source in your appendix, include an in-text citation just as you would in the main body of your paper and then include the source in your main reference section.
  • Each appendix may contain headings, subheadings, figures, and tables. 
  • Each figure or table in your appendix should include a brief but explanatory title, which should be italicized. 
  • If you want to reference your appendix within the text of your paper, include a parenthetical note in the text. For example, you would write (See Appendix A).

Formatting an APA Appendix

How do you format an appendix in APA? An APA appendix should follow the overall rules on how to format text. Such rules specify what font and font size you should use, the size of your margins, and the spacing of the text.

Some of the APA format guidelines you need to observe:

  • Use a consistent font, such as 12-point Times New Roman or 11-point Calibri
  • Double-space your text
  • All paragraphs should be indented on the first line
  • Page numbering should be continuous with the rest of your paper

The appendix label should appear centered and bolded at the top of the page. A descriptive title should follow and should also be bolded and centered. As with other pages in your paper, your APA format appendix should be left-aligned and double-spaced. Each page should include a page number in the top right corner. You can also have more than one appendix, but each one should begin on a new page.

Data Displays in an APA Appendix

When presenting information in an appendix, use a logical layout for any data displays such as tables or figures. All tables and figures should be labeled with the words “Table” or “Figure” (sans quotation marks) and the letter of the appendix and then numbered.

For example, Table A1 would be the first table in an Appendix A. Data displays should be presented in the appendix following the same order that they first appear in the text of your paper.

In addition to following basic APA formatting rules, you should also check to see if there are additional guidelines you need to follow. Individual instructors or publications may have their own specific requirements.

Where to Include an APA Appendix

If your paper does require an appendix, it should be the very last pages of your finished paper. An APA format paper is usually structured in the following way:

Your paper may not necessarily include all of these sections. At a minimum, however, your paper may consist of a title page, abstract, main text, and reference section. Also, if your paper does not contain tables, figures, or footnotes, then the appendix would follow the references.

Never include an appendix containing information that is not referred to in your text. 

A Word From Verywell

Writing a paper for class or publication requires a great deal of research, but you should pay special attention to your APA formatting. Each section of your paper, including the appendix section, needs to follow the rules and guidelines provided in the American Psychological Association’s stylebook.

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2020.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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  • Research paper
  • Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023.

An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.

Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your thesis or dissertation topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.

We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.

Download Word doc Download Google doc

Location of appendices

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Table of contents

What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about appendices.

In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.

While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.

As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.

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sample apa research paper with appendix

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An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:

  • Supplementary results : Research findings  are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
  • Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
  • Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.

You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys ) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Always start each appendix on a new page.
  • Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as “Appendix A. Interview transcripts.” This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
  • Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., “Transcripts”) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.

It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It’s also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.

Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …

It is common to capitalize “Appendix” when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in  capitalizing headings and titles in academic writing .

However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, “The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews .”

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The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice. If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.

Location of appendices

Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .

There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:

  • List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
  • Glossary : If you utilize many specialized or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
  • Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .

Checklist: Appendix

All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.

Each appendix starts on a new page.

I have given each appendix a number and clear title.

I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.

My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.

I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.

Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices . Use author-date citations as you do in the main text.

Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list . Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices.

An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:

  • Interview transcripts
  • Questionnaires
  • Detailed descriptions of equipment

Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.

When you include more than one appendix in an APA Style paper , they should be labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.

When you only include a single appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in the main text.

Appendices in an APA Style paper appear right at the end, after the reference list and after your tables and figures if you’ve also included these at the end.

You may have seen both “appendices” or “appendixes” as pluralizations of “ appendix .” Either spelling can be used, but “appendices” is more common (including in APA Style ). Consistency is key here: make sure you use the same spelling throughout your paper.

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APA Style 7th Edition

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Sample Paper & Reference List

  • APA Sample Paper Template This sample paper includes a title page, sample assignment page and references list in APA format. It can be used as a template to set up your assignment.
  • APA 7th Edition Student Sample Paper This example from Idaho State University presents guidelines for student papers following the American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual 7th edition.
  • Student APA 7th Edition Sample Paper Example of student APA 7th edition paper with notations from Antioch University Writing Center.
  • APA Headings If your instructor requires you to use APA style headings and sub-headings, this document will show you how they work. This sample demonstrates and describes how to use different levels of headings in APA format.
  • APA Sample Paper Template - with Appendix If you are adding an appendix to your paper there are a few rules to follow that comply with APA guidelines: The Appendix appears after the References list If you have more than one appendix you would name the first appendix Appendix A, the second Appendix B, etc. The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay Each appendix begins on a new page

APA End of Paper Checklist

  • End of Paper Checklist Finished your assignment? Use this checklist to be sure you haven't missed any information needed for APA style.

Quick Rules for an APA Reference List

Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. Here are nine quick rules for this Reference list.

  • Start a new page for your Reference list. Centre the title, References, at the top of the page.
  • Double-space the list.
  • Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (a hanging indent).
  • Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the reference. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
  • For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle, if listed) initials followed by periods.
  • Italicize the titles of these works: books, audiovisual material, internet documents and newspapers, and the title and volume number of journals and magazines.
  • Do not italicize titles of most parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document.
  • In titles of non-periodicals (books, videotapes, websites, reports, poems, essays, chapters, etc), capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and all proper nouns (names of people, places, organizations, nationalities).
  • If a web source (not from the library) is not a stable archived version, or you are unsure whether it is stable, include a statement of the accessed date before the link.
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Citations - APA: Formatting - Essay, Reference List, Appendix, & Sample Paper

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  • Diane Hacker APA Sample Paper

If you are adding an appendix to your paper there are a few rules to follow that comply with APA guidelines:

  • The Appendix appears  after  the References list
  • If you have more than one appendix you would name the first appendix Appendix A, the second Appendix B, etc.
  • The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay
  • Each appendix begins on a new page
  • APA Sample Paper - with Appendix (Purdue OWL example)

Quick Rules for an APA Reference List

Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. Here are nine quick rules for this Reference list.

  • Start a new page for your Reference list. Centre the title, References, at the top of the page.
  • Double-space the list.
  • Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (a hanging indent).
  • Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the reference. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
  • For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle, if listed) initials followed by periods.
  • Italicize the titles of works: books, audiovisual material, internet documents and newspapers, and the title and volume number of journals and magazines.
  • Do not italicize titles of parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document.
  • In titles of non-periodicals (books, videotapes, websites, reports, poems, essays, chapters, etc), capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and all proper nouns (names of people, places, organizations, nationalities).
  • If more than one place of publication is listed give the publisher's home office. If the home office is not given or known then choose the first location listed.
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APA 7th Guide: Formatting Resources

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Paper Formatting

Short Direct Quotes

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Paper Formatting Checklist for Students

General formatting.

  • Header includes page numbers, right aligned at the top of each page
  • Margins are 1 inch on all sides
  • All text is double spaced
  • All paragraphs are left-aligned
  • All paragraphs in the Text have the first line indented
  • Font may be 12pt Times New Roman*
  • Header may include a running head*
  • Text is center aligned
  • Full title of the paper, bolded
  • Author name(s)
  • Affiliated institution and department
  • Course number
  • Instructor Name
  • Assignment due date (Month Day, Year)
  • Left aligned 
  • No paragraph indentation
  • Usually no more than 250 words
  • Starts on a separate page from the Title Page/Abstract
  • Title of the paper in level 1 heading format at the top of the first page
  • The first line of each paragraph is indented 1/2 inch
  • Section headings to organize content

Reference List

  • Starts on a new page, separate from the Text
  • "References" is capitalized, bold, and centered at the top of the page
  • Left aligned with a hanging indent on each reference entry
  • Organized alphabetically by the first letter in each reference entry

Tables & Figures* 

  • Can appear in the text after the paragraph in which they were mentioned or at the end of a paper after the reference list
  • Number (bolded)
  • Brief title in italics
  • Note following

Appendices*

  • Appears in the text after Tables and Figures or the Reference List
  • Each appendix is referenced parenthetically in the Text
  • Each starts on its own page
  • Appendix (X) and Title must be centered and bold at the top of the page

*Not required in the APA 7th Ed. Manual for students, but may be required by your professor.

Which Font?

APA 7th Ed. permits several styles of font, depending on whether the text will be read on a screen or in physical copy. Always check to see if your professor requires a certain font, especially since Times New Roman 12pt font has been the default for so long.

Sans-serif fonts for reading on a screen

  • Calibri 11 pt.
  • Arial 11 pt.
  • Lucida Sans Unicode

Serif fonts for reading in physical copy

  • Times New Roman 12pt.
  • Georgia 11pt.
  • Computer Modern 10pt.

Online Resources for APA Style

  • Style & Grammar Guidelines This page links to brief explanations of every aspect of the APA 7th edition manual.
  • APA Style Blog Official companion to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th Edition.
  • Essentials of Paper Formatting A page with links to the essentials of general guidelines for formatting your paper in APA 7th Ed.
  • Sample APA 7th Ed. Papers The American Psychological Association has provided a few example papers for both student and professional formatting.
  • Purdue OWL APA 7th The Online Writing Lab (OWL) is provided and maintained by Purdue University. It contains examples and detailed explanations of APA 7th edition style guidelines.
  • General Paper Formatting Handout
  • Types of References Handout
  • Formatting Checklist Handout

Level 1 Heading

     This is the highest level of heading and should be used to denote the primary sections within a paper such as the Methods, Discussion, or Conclusion of a paper. Level one headings should be centered, bolded, use title case (upper and lower case letters). All headings should be the same font size as the rest of your manuscript.

Level 2 Heading

     Use this level of heading to organize topics within the major sections of your manuscript. For example, you could have sections for sample selection, participant recruitment, and/or assessment tool in the methods section of your manuscript. The level 2 heading is formatted the same as the level 1 heading except it should be flush with the left margin.

Level 3 Heading  

     This heading is very useful for organizing specific subjects within a topic. For example, if assessing different sources in a literature review, list the name of each source as a level 3 heading at the beginning of the paragraph in which a specific source is discussed. This heading is formatted the same as a level 2 heading, except it is italicized.

Tables & Figures

Each table is assigned a number in bold based on the order it is used in the article (i.e. Table 1 ). Located below the table number (and just above the table itself) should be a clear but concise title in italics and title case. Notes about the table go underneath the table. To format one, put " Note. " in italics with a period or colon then follow it with a description or explanation.

7th edition table formatting

Example provided courtesy of Dr. Kandi Pitchford.

For more information on formatting and when to use tables, check out the link below.

Each figure is assigned a number in bold based on the order it is used in the article (i.e.  Figure 1 ). Located below the figure number (and just above the figure itself) should be a clear but concise title in italics and title case. Notes about the figure go underneath. To format a note, put " Note. " in italics with a period or colon then follow it with a description or explanation.

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sample apa research paper with appendix

Note:  Emblem provided with the approval of South College

For more examples and guidelines for how and when to use figures in a paper, follow the link below.

  • APA Figures

Formatting Appendices

  • What is an appendix?
  • How do I use an appendix?
  • How do I make an appendix?

An appendix is a section that can come after the reference list that includes supplementary content that doesn't belong in the main text.

Examples:  results table from a cited source, an info-graphic, a guideline checklist, or a diagram of complex equipment.

Point readers to the content of an appendix in the body of an article by referring to the corresponding appendix heading. Each appendix should be referred to at least once in the text with a parenthesis.

Example:  This kitchen is rated a 5 on the Hazard Scale (for more information on the Hazard Scale, see Appendix B). 

Format an appendix the same way you would start a reference list, with "Appendix" and the title bolded and centered at the top of a new page. If there is more than one appendix, start each on a new page and include a capital letter with the heading. Appendices are lettered and organized by the order they are referred to in the body of the article.

Example: 

Hazard Scale

  • 1 - The room is completely safe and the likelihood of being injured is very low.
  • 2 - The room is relatively safe, but injury is likely if one is inattentive to the environment.
  • 3 - The room is completely unsafe and injury or illness is very likely.

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA Sample Papers

APA Sample Papers

Ever wonder how to format your research paper in APA style? If so, you’re in luck! The team at EasyBib.com has put together an example paper to help guide you through your next assignment. (Actually, looking for MLA? Here’s a page on what is MLA format .)

The featured example is a research paper on the uses of biometrics to inform design decisions in the tech industry, authored by our UX Research Intern Peace Iyiewuare. Like most APA style papers, it includes an APA title page , tables, and several references and APA in-text citations to scholarly journals relevant to its topic. References are an important aspect of scientific research papers, and formatting them correctly is critical to getting a good grade.

This paper follows the formatting rules specified in the 6th edition of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (the APA is not directly associated with this guide) . We’ve left comments and tips throughout the document, so you’ll know the specific rules around how to format titles, spacing, and font, as well as the citations on the APA reference page .

The reference list needs special care, as it demonstrates to the reader that you have accurately portrayed your outside sources and have given credit to the appropriate parties. Be sure to check our full APA citation guide for more information on paper formatting and citing sources in APA style. There is also a guide on  APA footnotes in case that is your preferred form of citation.

Download the APA Visual Guide

When citations are done, don’t forget to finish your paper off with a proofread—EasyBib Plus’s plagiarism and grammar check can help! Got a misspelled adverb ? Missed capitalizing a proper noun ? Struggling with subject-verb agreement ? These are just a few things our checker could help you spot in your paper.

D. Complete Sample APA Paper

We’ve included a full student paper below to give you an idea of what an essay in APA format looks like, complete with a title page, paper, reference list, and index. If you plan to include an APA abstract in your paper, see the Professional Paper for an example.

If you’re looking for an APA format citation generator, we’ve got you covered. Use EasyBib.com! Our APA format machine can help you create every reference for your paper.

Below is an example of a student APA format essay. We also have PDF versions of both a student paper and a professional paper linked below.

See Student Paper                                 See Professional Paper

Using Biometrics to Evaluate Visual Design

Jane Lisa Dekker

Art Department, Northern California Valley State University

UXAD 272: Strategic Web Design

Professor Juan Liu, PhD

January 29, 2020

      A vast amount of research has been conducted regarding the importance of visual design, and its role as a mediator of user’s experience when browsing a site or interacting with an interface. In the literature, visual design is one aspect of website quality. Jones and Kim (2010) define website quality as “the perceived quality of a retail website that involves a [user’s] perceptions of the retailer’s website and comprises consumer reactions towards such attributes as information, entertainment/enjoyment, usability, transaction capabilities, and design aesthetics” (p. 632).  They further examined the impact web quality and retail brand trust has on purchase intentions. Additional research examining e-commerce sites has shown web quality has an impact on both initial and continued purchase intention (Kuan, Bock, & Vathanophas, 2008), as well as consumer satisfaction (Lin, 2007). Moreso, research on the relationship between visual design and perceived usability (Stojmenovic, Pilgrim, & Lindgaard, 2014) has revealed a positive correlation between the two. As users’ ratings of visual quality increase, their ratings of perceived usability follows a similar trend. Although this research spans various domains, the reliance on self-report measures to gauge concepts like visual design and web quality is prevalent throughout much of the literature.

Although some self-report scales are validated within the literature, there are still issues with the use of self-report questionnaires. One is the reliance on the honesty of the participant. This tends to be more of an issue in studies related to questionnaires that measure characteristics of the participant, rather than objective stimuli. More relevant to this study is the issue of introspection and memory. Surveys are often distributed after a task is completed, and its accuracy is dependent on the ability of the participant to remember their experience during the study. Multiple research studies have shown that human memory is far from static. This can

be dangerous if a researcher chooses to solely rely on self-report methods to test a hypothesis. We believe these self-report methods in tandem with biometric methods can help ensure the validity of the questionnaires, and provide information beyond the scope of self-report scales.

Research Questions

      We know from previous research that the quality of websites mediates many aspects of e-commerce, and provides insight as to how consumers view the webpages in general.  However, simply knowing a webpage is perceived as lower quality doesn’t give insight as to what aspects of a page are disliked by a user. Additionally, it’s possible that the user is misremembering aspects of the webpage or being dishonest in their assessment. Using eye tracking metrics, galvanic skin response, and facial expression measures in tandem with a scale aimed at measuring visual design quality has a couple of identifiable benefits. Using both can potentially identify patterns amongst the biometric measures and the questionnaire, which would strengthen the validity of the results. More so, the eye tracking data has the potential to identify patterns amongst websites of lower or higher quality.

If found, these patterns can be used to evaluate particular aspects of a page that are impacting the quality of a webpage. Overall, we are interested in answering two questions:

Research Question 1 : Can attitudinal changes regarding substantial website redesigns be captured using biometric measures?

Research Question 2 : How do biometric measures correlate with self-reported measures of visual appeal?

      Answering these questions has the potential to provide a method of justification for design changes, ranging from minor tweak to complete rebrands. There is not an easy way for companies to quantitatively analyze visual design decisions. A method for doing so would help companies evaluate visual designs before implementation in order to cost-justify them. To this end, we hope to demonstrate that biometric measurements can be used with questionnaires to verify and validate potential design changes a company or organization might want to implement.

      By examining data from test subjects during a brief exposure to several websites, we hoped to explore the relationship between the self-reported evaluation of visual design quality and key biometric measurements of a subject’s emotional valence and arousal. Subjects were exposed to ten pairs of websites before and after a substantial visual design change and asked to evaluate the website based on their initial impressions of the site’s visual design quality using the VisAWI-S scale, as shown in Table 1.  

During this assessment we collected GSR, facial expressions (limited by errors in initial study configuration), pupillary response, and fixation data using iMotions software coupled with a Tobii eye tracker, Shimmer GSR device, and Affdex facial expression analysis toolkit. This data was analyzed, in Table 2, to discover relationships between the independent and dependent variables, as well as relationships between certain dependent variables.  

Jones, C., & Kim, S. (2010). Influences of retail brand trust, off-line patronage, clothing involvement and website quality on online apparel shopping intention: Online apparel shopping intention. International Journal of Consumer Studies , 34 (6), 627–637. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2010.00871.x

Kuan, H.-H., Bock, G.-W., & Vathanophas, V. (2008). Comparing the effects of website quality on customer initial purchase and continued purchase at e-commerce websites. Behaviour & Information Technology , 27 (1), 3–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/01449290600801959

Lin, H.-F. (2007). The impact of website quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in the B2C e-commerce context. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence , 18 (4), 363–378. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783360701231302

Stojmenovic, M., Pilgrim, C., & Lindgaard, G. (2014). Perceived and objective usability and visual appeal in a website domain with a less developed mental model. Proceedings of the 26 th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference on Designing Futures: The Future of Design , 316–323. https://doi.org/10.1145/2686612.2686660

APA Formatting Guide

APA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Multiple Authors
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Parenthetical Citations
  • Reference Page
  • Sample Paper
  • APA 7 Updates
  • View APA Guide

Citation Examples

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  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
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APA 7th Edition - University of Lincoln

  • APA style and referencing
  • Main changes from the 6th edition to the 7th edition of APA
  • In-text citations
  • Common citation queries
  • Example start of an assignment with in-text citations
  • Reference list
  • Example reference list
  • Guidance on writing in APA style

Appendix/Appendices

  • Figures and tables
  • Secondary referencing
  • Book with a single author
  • Book with two authors
  • Book with three to 20 authors
  • Edited book
  • Chapter in an edited book
  • Book with no author
  • Edition of a book other than the first
  • Dictionary/ thesaurus or encylopedia
  • One volume of a multi-volume work
  • Diagnostic manual
  • Journal article with one author
  • Journal article with two authors
  • Journal article with three to 20 authors
  • Journal article with 21 or more authors
  • Advance online publications or articles in press
  • Special issue or special section in a journal
  • Journal articles with an article number instead of page numbers
  • Official publications and reports
  • Webpages and websites
  • Advertisements
  • Conference sessions, paper and poster presentations
  • Film, television, radio
  • Law and legal references
  • Treaties and international conventions
  • Newspaper articles
  • Personal communications
  • Powerpoint slides
  • Social media
  • Software and mobile apps
  • Tests, scales and inventories
  • Theses, dissertations
  • Translated works
  • AI and ChatGPT
  • Statistical tests This link opens in a new window
  • Education subject guide This link opens in a new window
  • Psychology subject guide This link opens in a new window
  • Sport & Exercise Science subject guide This link opens in a new window

The appendix (plural appendices) is placed at the end of the a piece of academic work after the reference list and contains additional material which supports the body of the work but which would be distracting or inappropriate to include within the text itself. The appendix can include text, tables, figures, or a combination of these.

Begin each appendix on a new page. Each appendix requires a label which is followed on the next line by a title which describes the subject of the appendix. The label should be Appendix or, if there is more than one, label each appendix with a capital letter, e.g. Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. in the order in which they are mentioned in the text. 

The label and the title should be in bold and centered and written in title case (i.e. capitalise all major words).

Each appendix should be mentioned at least once in the text and should be referred to in text by the specific label - e.g. (see Appendix A).

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APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Sample Paper, Reference List & Annotated Bibliography

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On this Page

Quick Rules for APA Reference List

What is an Annotated Bibliography

Annotations

Annotated Bibliographies - How To Guide with Template

Useful Links for Annotated Bibliographies

Sample paper & reference list.

  • APA Sample Paper Template

This sample paper includes a title page, sample assignment page and references list in APA format. It can be used as a template to set up your assignment.

Sample Paper With Comments and Explanations

The American Psychological Association (APA) has created a sample paper that includes explanations of the elements and formatting in APA 7th ed. 

If your instructor requires you to use APA style headings and sub-headings, this document will show you how they work.

  • APA Headings This sample demonstrates and describes how to use different levels of headings in APA format.

If you are adding an appendix to your paper there are a few rules to follow that comply with APA guidelines:

  • The Appendix appears  after  the References list
  • If you have more than one appendix you would name the first appendix Appendix A, the second Appendix B, etc.
  • The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay
  • Each appendix begins on a new page
  • APA Sample Paper Template - with Appendix

APA End of Paper Checklist

  • End of Paper Checklist

Finished your assignment? Use this checklist to be sure you haven't missed any information needed for APA style.

Quick Rules for an APA Reference List

Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. Here are nine quick rules for this Reference list.

  • Start a new page for your Reference list. Centre the title, References, at the top of the page.
  • Double-space the list.
  • Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (a hanging indent).
  • Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the reference. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
  • For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle, if listed) initials followed by periods.
  • Italicize the titles of these works: books, audiovisual material, internet documents and newspapers, and the title and volume number of journals and magazines.
  • Do not italicize titles of most parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document.
  • In titles of non-periodicals (books, videotapes, websites, reports, poems, essays, chapters, etc), capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and all proper nouns (names of people, places, organizations, nationalities).
  • If a web source (not from the library) is not a stable archived version, or you are unsure whether it is stable, include a statement of the accessed date before the link.

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Reference page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself.

Types of Annotations

 A summary annotation describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what the document discusses, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description. 

 An evaluative annotation includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation.

Annotated Bibliographies: How-To Guide

  • APA Annotated Bibliography Template

Below is a sample of an Evaluative Annotation:

  • Annotated Bibliographies Overview of purpose and form of annotated bibliographies from the Purdue OWL.
  • Writing an Annotated Bibliography Overview and examples from the University of Guelph.
  • Writing an Annotated Bibliography Definition, tips, and examples from the University of Toronto.
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How to Write an APA Research Paper

Psychology/neuroscience 201, v iew in pdf format.

An APA-style paper includes the following sections: title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and references. Your paper may also include one or more tables and/or figures. Different types of information about your study are addressed in each of the sections, as described below.

General formatting rules are as follows:

Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections.

The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around.

(see sample on p. 41 of APA manual)

  • Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV).
  • Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces)
  • Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words “Running head,” but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page.

Abstract (labeled, centered, not bold)

No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced.

  • State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion.

Introduction

(Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the page—not bold)

The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction:

  • Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, “Past research has shown (blah blah blah)” They’ll be snoring within a paragraph!  Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat.  Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t?  Why not?  See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area.
  • Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next.
  • Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993.  Then....(etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.”
  • When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because…”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so.  DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words.
  • Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section.
  • Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor.  Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting.

Method (labeled, centered, bold)

The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly.

The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section.

Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the Materials section rather than after it.

Participants (labeled, flush left, bold)

Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence.

  • How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points)
  • Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280...” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college….”
  • Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible.

Materials (labeled, flush left, bold)

Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth.

  • If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for your reader.
  • If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix.
  • If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed.  If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures.”

Apparatus (labeled, flush left, bold)

Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eye tracking machine) and need to describe it in detail.

Procedure (labeled, flush left, bold)

What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did.  In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing.

Results (labeled, centered, bold)

In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis.

  • Include a section for descriptive statistics
  • List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.
  • Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p < .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom (N – 2 for an independent-groups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p < .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom (N – 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p < .001, where 2 represents the between and 18 represents df within Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 .
  • Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual).  However, for p-values less than .001, simply put p < .001.
  • Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted …”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs.
  • It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1…”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure.
  • Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section.

Discussion (labeled, centered, bold)

The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out). Some points to consider:

  • Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature.
  • What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below.
  • What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it?  Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus” or “It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why.
  • What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?

Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature.

References (labeled, centered, not bold)

Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly.

Examples of references to journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more).

Journal article example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] 

Ebner-Priemer, U. W., & Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment, 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075

Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.]

Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House.

Book example: Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth

Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced.

Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., “Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as a function of applicant attractiveness level”). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean.

In-Text Citations: (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and publication date.

You should use the following formats:

  • When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the…”
  • When the citation appears in parentheses, use “&”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones & Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, & Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons.
  • If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number.
  • For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that….” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). 

Secondary Sources

“Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source.

Try to avoid using secondary sources in your papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:

Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts... The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.

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Sample Papers

The APA Style website contains several  sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style. The sample papers were published in both annotated and non-annotated formats. The annotations draw attention to relevant content and formatting and provide users with the relevant sections of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) to consult for more information.

Sometimes authors wish to include material that supplements the paper's content but that would be distracting in the text of the paper. Such material can often be included in an appendix. If you are adding an appendix to your paper, here are a few rules to follow:

  • The appendix appears after the Reference list, tables, and figures.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • If you only have one appendix, label it Appendix. If you have more than one appendix, name the first appendix Appendix A, the second appendix Appendix B, etc.
  • The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your paper.
  • Each appendix should be mentioned (called out) at least once in the text by its label (e.g., "see Appendix A").
  • Place the appendix label and title in bold and centered on separate lines at the top of the page on which the appendix begins.
  • Use title case for the appendix label and title.

Reference List

A Reference list provides a reliable way for readers to locate the works authors cite. Here are a few rules for a Reference list:

  • The Reference list appears after the text and before any tables, figures, and appendices.
  • The Reference list begins on a new page.
  • Label the Reference list "References." Center this heading and use a bold font.
  • Double-space the list.
  • Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line 0.5 inches (a hanging indent).
  • Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the reference. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
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Tables and Figures

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Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resources for the older APA 6 style  can be found at this page  as well as at this page (our old resources covered the material on this page on two separate pages).

The purpose of tables and figures in documents is to enhance your readers' understanding of the information in the document; usually, large amounts of information can be communicated more efficiently in tables or figures. Tables are any graphic that uses a row and column structure to organize information, whereas figures include any illustration or image other than a table.

General guidelines

Visual material such as tables and figures can be used quickly and efficiently to present a large amount of information to an audience, but visuals must be used to assist communication, not to use up space, or disguise marginally significant results behind a screen of complicated statistics. Ask yourself this question first: Is the table or figure necessary? For example, it is better to present simple descriptive statistics in the text, not in a table.

Relation of Tables or Figures and Text

Because tables and figures supplement the text, refer in the text to all tables and figures used and explain what the reader should look for when using the table or figure. Focus only on the important point the reader should draw from them, and leave the details for the reader to examine on their own.

Documentation

If you are using figures, tables and/or data from other sources, be sure to gather all the information you will need to properly document your sources.

Integrity and Independence

Each table and figure must be intelligible without reference to the text, so be sure to include an explanation of every abbreviation (except the standard statistical symbols and abbreviations).

Organization, Consistency, and Coherence

Number all tables sequentially as you refer to them in the text (Table 1, Table 2, etc.), likewise for figures (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Abbreviations, terminology, and probability level values must be consistent across tables and figures in the same article. Likewise, formats, titles, and headings must be consistent. Do not repeat the same data in different tables.

Data in a table that would require only two or fewer columns and rows should be presented in the text. More complex data is better presented in tabular format. In order for quantitative data to be presented clearly and efficiently, it must be arranged logically, e.g. data to be compared must be presented next to one another (before/after, young/old, male/female, etc.), and statistical information (means, standard deviations, N values) must be presented in separate parts of the table. If possible, use canonical forms (such as ANOVA, regression, or correlation) to communicate your data effectively.

This image shows a table with multiple notes formatted in APA 7 style.

A generic example of a table with multiple notes formatted in APA 7 style.

Elements of Tables

Number all tables with Arabic numerals sequentially. Do not use suffix letters (e.g. Table 3a, 3b, 3c); instead, combine the related tables. If the manuscript includes an appendix with tables, identify them with capital letters and Arabic numerals (e.g. Table A1, Table B2).

Like the title of the paper itself, each table must have a clear and concise title. Titles should be written in italicized title case below the table number, with a blank line between the number and the title. When appropriate, you may use the title to explain an abbreviation parenthetically.

Comparison of Median Income of Adopted Children (AC) v. Foster Children (FC)

Keep headings clear and brief. The heading should not be much wider than the widest entry in the column. Use of standard abbreviations can aid in achieving that goal. There are several types of headings:

  • Stub headings describe the lefthand column, or stub column , which usually lists major independent variables.
  • Column headings describe entries below them, applying to just one column.
  • Column spanners are headings that describe entries below them, applying to two or more columns which each have their own column heading. Column spanners are often stacked on top of column headings and together are called decked heads .
  • Table Spanners cover the entire width of the table, allowing for more divisions or combining tables with identical column headings. They are the only type of heading that may be plural.

All columns must have headings, written in sentence case and using singular language (Item rather than Items) unless referring to a group (Men, Women). Each column’s items should be parallel (i.e., every item in a column labeled “%” should be a percentage and does not require the % symbol, since it’s already indicated in the heading). Subsections within the stub column can be shown by indenting headings rather than creating new columns:

Chemical Bonds

     Ionic

     Covalent

     Metallic

The body is the main part of the table, which includes all the reported information organized in cells (intersections of rows and columns). Entries should be center aligned unless left aligning them would make them easier to read (longer entries, usually). Word entries in the body should use sentence case. Leave cells blank if the element is not applicable or if data were not obtained; use a dash in cells and a general note if it is necessary to explain why cells are blank.   In reporting the data, consistency is key: Numerals should be expressed to a consistent number of decimal places that is determined by the precision of measurement. Never change the unit of measurement or the number of decimal places in the same column.

There are three types of notes for tables: general, specific, and probability notes. All of them must be placed below the table in that order.

General  notes explain, qualify or provide information about the table as a whole. Put explanations of abbreviations, symbols, etc. here.

Example:  Note . The racial categories used by the US Census (African-American, Asian American, Latinos/-as, Native-American, and Pacific Islander) have been collapsed into the category “non-White.” E = excludes respondents who self-identified as “White” and at least one other “non-White” race.

Specific  notes explain, qualify or provide information about a particular column, row, or individual entry. To indicate specific notes, use superscript lowercase letters (e.g.  a ,  b ,  c ), and order the superscripts from left to right, top to bottom. Each table’s first footnote must be the superscript  a .

a  n = 823.  b  One participant in this group was diagnosed with schizophrenia during the survey.

Probability  notes provide the reader with the results of the tests for statistical significance. Asterisks indicate the values for which the null hypothesis is rejected, with the probability ( p value) specified in the probability note. Such notes are required only when relevant to the data in the table. Consistently use the same number of asterisks for a given alpha level throughout your paper.

* p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001

If you need to distinguish between two-tailed and one-tailed tests in the same table, use asterisks for two-tailed p values and an alternate symbol (such as daggers) for one-tailed p values.

* p < .05, two-tailed. ** p < .01, two-tailed. † p <.05, one-tailed. †† p < .01, one-tailed.

Borders 

Tables should only include borders and lines that are needed for clarity (i.e., between elements of a decked head, above column spanners, separating total rows, etc.). Do not use vertical borders, and do not use borders around each cell. Spacing and strict alignment is typically enough to clarify relationships between elements.

This image shows an example of a table presented in the text of an APA 7 paper.

Example of a table in the text of an APA 7 paper. Note the lack of vertical borders.

Tables from Other Sources

If using tables from an external source, copy the structure of the original exactly, and cite the source in accordance with  APA style .

Table Checklist

(Taken from the  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed., Section 7.20)

  • Is the table necessary?
  • Does it belong in the print and electronic versions of the article, or can it go in an online supplemental file?
  • Are all comparable tables presented consistently?
  • Are all tables numbered with Arabic numerals in the order they are mentioned in the text? Is the table number bold and left-aligned?
  • Are all tables referred to in the text?
  • Is the title brief but explanatory? Is it presented in italicized title case and left-aligned?
  • Does every column have a column heading? Are column headings centered?
  • Are all abbreviations; special use of italics, parentheses, and dashes; and special symbols explained?
  • Are the notes organized according to the convention of general, specific, probability?
  • Are table borders correctly used (top and bottom of table, beneath column headings, above table spanners)?
  • Does the table use correct line spacing (double for the table number, title, and notes; single, one and a half, or double for the body)?
  • Are entries in the left column left-aligned beneath the centered stub heading? Are all other column headings and cell entries centered?
  • Are confidence intervals reported for all major point estimates?
  • Are all probability level values correctly identified, and are asterisks attached to the appropriate table entries? Is a probability level assigned the same number of asterisks in all the tables in the same document?
  • If the table or its data are from another source, is the source properly cited? Is permission necessary to reproduce the table?

Figures include all graphical displays of information that are not tables. Common types include graphs, charts, drawings, maps, plots, and photos. Just like tables, figures should supplement the text and should be both understandable on their own and referenced fully in the text. This section details elements of formatting writers must use when including a figure in an APA document, gives an example of a figure formatted in APA style, and includes a checklist for formatting figures.

Preparing Figures

In preparing figures, communication and readability must be the ultimate criteria. Avoid the temptation to use the special effects available in most advanced software packages. While three-dimensional effects, shading, and layered text may look interesting to the author, overuse, inconsistent use, and misuse may distort the data, and distract or even annoy readers. Design properly done is inconspicuous, almost invisible, because it supports communication. Design improperly, or amateurishly, done draws the reader’s attention from the data, and makes him or her question the author’s credibility. Line drawings are usually a good option for readability and simplicity; for photographs, high contrast between background and focal point is important, as well as cropping out extraneous detail to help the reader focus on the important aspects of the photo.

Parts of a Figure

All figures that are part of the main text require a number using Arabic numerals (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Numbers are assigned based on the order in which figures appear in the text and are bolded and left aligned.

Under the number, write the title of the figure in italicized title case. The title should be brief, clear, and explanatory, and both the title and number should be double spaced.

The image of the figure is the body, and it is positioned underneath the number and title. The image should be legible in both size and resolution; fonts should be sans serif, consistently sized, and between 8-14 pt. Title case should be used for axis labels and other headings; descriptions within figures should be in sentence case. Shading and color should be limited for clarity; use patterns along with color and check contrast between colors with free online checkers to ensure all users (people with color vision deficiencies or readers printing in grayscale, for instance) can access the content. Gridlines and 3-D effects should be avoided unless they are necessary for clarity or essential content information.

Legends, or keys, explain symbols, styles, patterns, shading, or colors in the image. Words in the legend should be in title case; legends should go within or underneath the image rather than to the side. Not all figures will require a legend.

Notes clarify the content of the figure; like tables, notes can be general, specific, or probability. General notes explain units of measurement, symbols, and abbreviations, or provide citation information. Specific notes identify specific elements using superscripts; probability notes explain statistical significance of certain values.

This image shows a generic example of a bar graph formatted as a figure in APA 7 style.

A generic example of a figure formatted in APA 7 style.

Figure Checklist 

(Taken from the  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7 th ed., Section 7.35)

  • Is the figure necessary?
  • Does the figure belong in the print and electronic versions of the article, or is it supplemental?
  • Is the figure simple, clean, and free of extraneous detail?
  • Is the figure title descriptive of the content of the figure? Is it written in italic title case and left aligned?
  • Are all elements of the figure clearly labeled?
  • Are the magnitude, scale, and direction of grid elements clearly labeled?
  • Are parallel figures or equally important figures prepared according to the same scale?
  • Are the figures numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals? Is the figure number bold and left aligned?
  • Has the figure been formatted properly? Is the font sans serif in the image portion of the figure and between sizes 8 and 14?
  • Are all abbreviations and special symbols explained?
  • If the figure has a legend, does it appear within or below the image? Are the legend’s words written in title case?
  • Are the figure notes in general, specific, and probability order? Are they double-spaced, left aligned, and in the same font as the paper?
  • Are all figures mentioned in the text?
  • Has written permission for print and electronic reuse been obtained? Is proper credit given in the figure caption?
  • Have all substantive modifications to photographic images been disclosed?
  • Are the figures being submitted in a file format acceptable to the publisher?
  • Have the files been produced at a sufficiently high resolution to allow for accurate reproduction?

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  1. How to Create an APA Style Appendix

    Revised on August 9, 2022. This article reflects the 7th edition guidelines of the APA Publication Manual. An appendix is a section at the end of an academic text where you include extra information that doesn't fit into the main text. The plural of appendix is "appendices."

  2. APA Sample Paper

    Download the free Acrobat Reader Note: The APA Publication Manual, 7th Edition specifies different formatting conventions for student and professional papers (i.e., papers written for credit in a course and papers intended for scholarly publication).

  3. Footnotes & Appendices

    Footnotes & Appendices Footnotes & Appendices APA style offers writers footnotes and appendices as spaces where additional, relevant information might be shared within a document; this resource offers a quick overview of format and content concerns for these segments of a document.

  4. Sample papers

    The following two sample papers were published in annotated form in the Publication Manual and are reproduced here as PDFs for your ease of use. The annotations draw attention to content and formatting and provide the relevant sections of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) to consult for more information.

  5. Formatting an Appendix

    Examples include "mathematical proofs, lists of words, a questionnaire used in the research, a detailed description of an apparatus used in the research, etc" (Purdue OWL.) Where is an Appendix Placed? An appendix (or appendices) follow the reference list. Use the following order for your paper: Title Page

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    APA 7th edition - Paper Format: Appendices Appendices How to Format An Appendix - Tutorial APA Appendices - JIBC Tip Sheet All you need to know about appendices in APA Style. Information in this section is as outlined in the APA Publication Manual (2020), sections 2.14, 2.17, 2.24, and 7.6.

  7. APA Appendix: How to Write an Appendix in APA Format

    Some examples of information you might include in an appendix include: Correspondence (if it pertains directly to your research) Demographic details about participants or groups Examples of participant responses Extended or detailed descriptions Lists that are too lengthy to include in the main text Large amounts of raw data

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  9. LibGuides: APA Style 7th Edition: Reference List and Sample Papers

    LibGuides Writing and Citation Styles Guides APA Style 7th Edition Reference List and Sample Papers APA Style 7th Edition Sample Paper & Reference List APA Sample Paper Template This sample paper includes a title page, sample assignment page and references list in APA format. It can be used as a template to set up your assignment.

  10. Formatting

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  11. PDF Sample APA Research Paper

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  12. APA 7th Guide: Formatting Resources

    A page with links to the essentials of general guidelines for formatting your paper in APA 7th Ed. Sample APA 7th Ed. Papers. ... Format an appendix the same way you would start a reference list, with "Appendix" and the title bolded and centered at the top of a new page. If there is more than one appendix, start each on a new page and include a ...

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    The featured example is a research paper on the uses of biometrics to inform design decisions in the tech industry, authored by our UX Research Intern Peace Iyiewuare. Like most APA style papers, it includes an APA title page, tables, and several references and APA in-text citations to scholarly journals relevant to its topic. References are an ...

  14. Appendix/Appendices

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  15. PDF APA 7 Student Sample Paper

    In this sample paper, we've put four blank lines above the title. Commented [AF3]: Authors' names are written below the title, with one double-spaced blank line between them. Names should be written as follows: First name, middle initial(s), last name. Commented [AF4]: Authors' affiliations follow immediately after their names.

  16. Sample Paper, Reference List & Annotated Bibliography

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  17. How to Write an APA Research Paper

    Title page. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the "View header" function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following:

  18. PDF ELEMENTS & FORMAT Sample Papers

    Sample Papers • 51 Sample Professional Paper (continued) Level 2 heading in the introduction, 2.27, Table 2.3, Figure 2.4 narrative citation, 8.11; paraphrasing, 8.23 parenthetical citation of a work with one author, 8.17 parenthetical citation for works with the same author and same date, 8.19 parenthetical citation of multiple works, 8.12

  19. Reference List and Sample Papers

    The APA Style website contains several sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style. The sample papers were published in both annotated and non-annotated formats. The annotations draw attention to relevant content and formatting and provide users with the relevant sections of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) to consult for more information.

  20. PDF Sample Student Paper

    Sample Student Paper (continued) 66 • PAPER ELEMENTS AND FORMAT journal article reference, 10.1 YouTube video reference, 10.12 short URL, 9.36 book reference, 10.2 report reference, 10.4 blog post reference, 10.1 conference presentation reference, 10.5 edited book chapter reference, 10.3 shortDOI, 9.36 ELEMENTS & FORMAT

  21. PDF Student Paper Setup Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

    Indent the first line of every paragraph of text 0.5 in. using the tab key or the paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program. Page numbers: Put a page number in the top right corner of every page, including the title page or cover page, which is page 1. Student papers do not require a running head on any page.

  22. APA Tables and Figures

    Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resources for the older APA 6 style can be found at this page as well as at this page (our old resources covered the material on this page on two separate pages). The purpose of tables and figures in documents is to enhance your readers' understanding of the ...

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